100 Greatest – 100 Khám Phá Vĩ Đại – Ep6: Genetics (Di truyền học) Sub Vi-Eng-Chi
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100 Greatest – 100 Khám Phá Vĩ Đại – Ep6: Genetics (Di truyền học) Sub Vi-Eng-Chi


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一个虔诚的神职人员以伟大科学家的身份名留青史
A good priest to left his mark as a great scientist,
因为他探索了遗传的奇迹
like exploring the miracle of heredity 一位优秀的女研究员,研究工作却不受男性同事的重视
A brilliant researcher, her work largely ignored by her male colleagues 直到一次革命性的突破
Until a revolutionary breakthrough. 一趟寻找共同分子的神奇旅程
A spell-binding journey to find the common thread of molecules 为生命的形态下了定义
That define the biology of life. 科学人才与意志力的空前结合 解开了我们所称的人类的奥秘
An unprecedented collaboration of scientific minds and real power dissolved the mysteries of what makes us human 下面是遗传基因的一些伟大发现
These are the greatest discoveries in history of genetics 翻译:TIV 特大碗牛肉面 时间轴校对:特大碗牛肉面 100个伟大发现 之 遗传学 约在50年前 这名男子发现我是他弟弟
Nearly 50 years ago, this man discovered that I am his brother 比尔,这不算是伟大发现吧?[Darby Nye 比尔的哥哥]
Bill, that sound wasn’t a great discovery. 不,只是个玩笑
No, that’s a joke. 是啊,只是个玩笑 天啊
Yes, it’s a joke, jeez 不,跟天没关系
No. not jeez. 是基因
Genes 我们在受孕时,就继承了父母的基因特征
When we are conceived, we inherited the genetic characteristics of our parents 但这些特征如何代代流传?
But how are those characteristics transmitted from one generation to the next 这是我们的第一个伟大发现
That’s our first great discovery 遗传法则 19世纪中叶 有位叫做格里高-孟德尔的奥古斯丁修道会修士
In the middle of the 19th century, an Augustine monk named Gregor Mendel 用一连串的实验来探索生物遗传的问题
Took up the question of biological inheritance with a series of experiments 孟德尔天生好问并且热爱大自然
Mendel has a natural inquisitive mind and profound love of the nature 他对科学的兴趣从植物研究一直到气象学和进化理论
His scientific interests range from research on plants to meteorology and the theories of evolution 他工作的地点今天位于捷克的一家修道院
Working at a monastery in what is now the Czech Republic 孟德尔一开始先将不同的豌豆品种杂交
Mendel started by cross-breeding different strands不确定of garden peas 然后观察它们后代的特征
Then observing the characteristics of their offspring 为什么选择豌豆呢?
Why choose peas? 他说这么做只是好玩而已
He did he said for the fun of the thing 孟德尔注意到圆形豌豆和皱缩形的豌豆杂交后
Mendel noticed when he crossed a round peas with a wrinkled one. 其后代都是圆形的 而并非如他预测,掺杂了两种特征
The offspring were round, not the mix of the two characteristics as he had expected 但圆形豌豆的后代经过培育后却出现了掺杂的特征
Yet when he bred the round pea offspring, that was the mix appeared 第二代有圆形和皱缩形两种种子
And second generation has both round and wrinkled seeds 他继续做试验
He continued to experiment,
试图了解是什么生物机制造成某些特征跳过第一代
trying to understand what kind of biological mechanism would cause certain characteristics to disappear in the first generation 却在第二代上出现
Only to reappear in the second 之后某天,孟德尔算了一下拥有皱缩形特征的第二代豌豆数目
Then one day, Mendel counted the number of the peas in the second generation that had the wrinkled characteristic 正好1/4的豌豆是皱缩的
Exactly one quarter of the peas were wrinkled 孟德尔在实验中观察到的
What Mendel observed in his experiments 正是现在所称的显性与分离的生物现象
Were the biological phenomena we now refer to as dominance and segregation. 只不过他那时不知道
Only Mendel did know it yet. 然而他的实验确实产生了一些奇怪的现象
Still, his experiments produced a curious set of facts 他形容为:不得不令人去注意
Which as he said forced themselves upon my noticed.不确定 不管他如何将不同的豌豆品种杂交
Is see no matter how he cross bred the various strains of peas 隐性的特征总会出现 但只出现在1/4的第二代上
The hidden characteristics showed up but only in one quarter of the second generation. 对孟德尔来说,这是个突破
For Mendel, here was the breakthrough 他首度证明了连续几代的特征 是以某个比例进行的
For the first time, he could demonstrate that the traits of successive generations were inherited in certain miraculous ratios. 也就是说,世界上有能支配遗传的固定的自然法则
In other words, there were fixed laws of that govern heredity. 这使得孟德尔成就了遗传学上的第一个伟大发现
With this insight, Mendel made the first great discovery in the science of genetics 每一个遗传特征,都是由一对他称为“因子”的东西所决定
Each inherited characteristic must be decided by pair o what he called factors 他说,每位父母 都位每一个特征贡献一个因子
Each parent, he said, contribute one factor for each characteristic 有些是显性的,有些是隐性的 取决于后代所继承的因子的组合
Certain factors are dominance, and others are recessive, depending on the combination of factors the offspring inherit 孟德尔所说的因子叫做“基因”
Mendel’s factors are called genes 孟德尔特征这个词被用来形容单一基因引起的特征
The term Mendelian trait is used to describe characteristic
即那1/4个显性遗传特征
caused by a single gene that sometimes reappears on one quarter of the offspring’s 这种特征可能无害 比如雀斑或者卷舌的能力
that characteristics can be innocuous, such as freckles or the ability to coil不确定 your tone. 但它可能导致严重的疾病 比如囊胞性纤维症或家族黑蒙性痴呆
But also can lead seriously illnesses like cystic fibrosis or Sachssdisease 想想看,这一切均来自一个人对平凡的豌豆所做的研究
Imagine, all that from one man’s work with the humble pea 我们下一个伟大发现也来自对另一个不起眼的物种所做的实验
And the experiments with another humble species that produced our next great discovery. 基因位于染色体上 认识一下果蝇,这是一种常见的果蝇
Meet Drosophila melanogaster, a common fruit fly. 今天它在遗传学研究中扮演的角色和一个多世纪以前一样重要
Its role in genetic research is as important today as it was over century ago 20世纪初期,科学家开始重新对孟德尔所说的遗传特征进行研究
Since the early nineteenth hundreds scientists began to reexamined Mendel’s work on the inherited traits 1909年时,丹麦植物学家WL约翰森为孟德尔的因子造了“基因”这个词
And in 1909, a Danish botanist named WL Johannsen called the term genes to describe Mendel’s factors 研究员托马斯摩尔根也投身遗传学领域
Among the researchers in the new field of genetics was Thomas Hunt Morgan 他当时是哥伦比亚大学一位见解独特的胚胎学家
An independent minded Columbia University embryologist 摩尔根在早期的研究中抨击孟德尔的遗传概念
In his early work, Morgan was critical of Mendel’s conceptions of heredity 甚至质疑达尔文的进化论
And even skeptical of Darwin’s theory of natural selection 直到摩尔根开始研究果蝇后,他的思想才有了转变
That’s, until Morgan started working with Drosophila 约瑟夫高尔是位细胞生物学家
Joseph Gall is a cell biologist
任职于马里兰州巴尔地摩的卡耐基科技工程学院
at the Carnegie institution in Baltimore Maryland 摩尔根为什么选择果蝇?发生了什么事?
Why did Morgan choose fruit flies? What’s going on? 我认为他选择果蝇有几个原因
Well, I think he chose fruit flies for several reasons.
主因是每一代的寿命都不长,这点很重要
The chief was the short generation time. So that’s very important. 另一个重要的原因就是一只雌果蝇可以繁殖数百个后代
The another important thing is that one female fly can give several hundred offspring 研究遗传学,首先需要很多资料
So, to do genetics, first of all, you need a lot of data, 你需要大量的果蝇,很多的个体
You need a lot of flies, lot of individuals 你不想花上一辈子时间才能取得它们
And you don’t want to wait forever to get them.
这些一年就有好几代,还有成千上万个后代
And you can have many generations per year, a thousand and thousand of offspring 有一天
The story goes at one day, 摩尔根为实验所进行的果蝇育种才开始没多久
Shortly after Morgan started breeding drosophila for his experiments 他的实验室中出现了一只引人注目的突变体
A striking mutate appeared in his lab. 那是一只有着特殊白眼睛的果蝇
A fly with distinctive white eyes 他决定将它和有正常红眼睛的雌果蝇交配
He decided to breed with the female fly that had ordinary red eyes 他很好奇它们的后代会是什么样子
Curious to see what the offspring would look like 2周后,他得到了答案
Two weeks later, he had his answer. 第一代后代一只只培育出来 它们全部是红眼睛
One by one, the first generation offspring appeared, all of them had red eyes 他想到白眼睛可能是一种隐性特征 就像孟德尔所观察到的那样
Thinking that the white eyes might be a hidden characteristic, similar to what Mendel had observed 于是摩尔根等着观察第二代的结果
Morgan waited to see what would happen in the second generation 很快,第二代出现了
Short enough, the characteristics skipped the generation. 有些是红眼睛,有的则是白眼睛
This time, some of the flies had red eyes, and some had white eyes. 但接着摩尔根还发现了别的东西
But then, Morgan sought something else. 所有有白眼睛的都是雄果蝇
All of the flies with white eyes were male 当时人们知道物种的性别,
At the time, it was known that the gender of the species
取决于细胞核中发现的2个条状结构—染色体
as determined by two of the rod shape structures found in the cell nucleus, the chromosomes 比如,女人有2条X染色体
For example, human females have two X chromosomes 男人有一条X染色体和一条Y染色体
Human males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome 摩尔根发现导致白眼睛的基因
Morgan realized that the genes responsible for the white eyes
必定与雄果蝇只有一条X染色体有关
must somehow be associated with the fact that male flies have only one X chromosome 这代表雌性其中一条X染色体上导致红眼睛的基因
This meant that the females, the genes responsible for the red eyes on one of the X chromosome 可能盖过另一条染色体上导致白眼睛的基因
Might be overshadowing the genes for white eyes on the other. 为了证实这一点,摩尔根培育了上千只果蝇以研究它们的遗传
To prove his point, Morgan bred thousands of fruit flies in studying their heritage 摩尔根的观察结果成为所有遗传学的基础
Morgan’s observations are absolutely fundamental to everything about genetics 因为摩尔根的实验发现基因位于染色体上
Because what Morgan in his studio shows was the genes are located in the linear order on the chromosomes 现在,遗传学家们知道血友病和肌肉萎缩症等疾病
Today, geneticists know that diseases like hemophilia and muscular dystrophy 是由X染色体上有缺陷的基因引起的
Are caused by defected genes on the X chromosome 据说其他的如癌症等疾病也可能与受损或者有缺陷的染色体有关
It’s believed that other diseases like cancer may be linked to damaged or defected chromosomes 摩尔根因为这个发现获得1933年诺贝尔医学奖
For his discovery, Morgan was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1933 他是第一位在遗传学领域中获此殊荣的科学家
The first scientist to win in the field of genetics. 至于果蝇,对摩尔根的研究做出巨大贡献
and Drosophila melanogaster, thanks the fruit flies contribution on Morgan’s work 现在果蝇在实验科学中被用作基本的动物模型之一
Drosophila is enshrined one of the basic animal models in experimental science. 它还带来了我们下一个伟大发现
And its legacy led to our next great discovery 基因控制生物化学事件 遗传学家乔治比多也跟着摩尔根一同研究果蝇
One of the geneticists who studied fruit flies alongside Morgan was Georges Beadle 1935年他在巴黎研究时找到证据
Working in Paris in 1935, Beadle detected evidence
证明果蝇遗传到的眼睛的颜色特征
that the inherited traits of eye color Drosophila 原因可能是以基因为基础的化学反应
Might be the result of genetically based chemical reactions. 比多在斯坦福大学和同事爱德华-塔顿继续进行研究
Beadle pursued his investigation at Stanford University with colleagues Edward Taton 比多和塔顿选择了另一种简单的有机体进行研究
For their experiments beadle and Taton selected another simple organism 面包徽菌
Neurosportcrusa bread mold 他们选择徽菌是因为它只需要简单的营养就能生长
They chose mold because it’s easy to grow with simple nutritional meets 面包,空气和水
Bread, air, and water 而且面包徽菌只有一组染色体
Neurosport also has single set of chromosomes,
这让研究员很容易就能观察到基因的变化
which allows the researchers to observe the genetic changes easily. 比多和塔顿知道X光会破坏染色体,他们便用X光来照射徽菌
Knowing that X-rays damaged the chromosomes, beadle and Taton eradiated the mold 让孢子的基因发生突变
Which caused mutations in its genes of spores 这些突变的基因无法制造出徽菌生长所需的营养
These mutated genes were unable to produce the nutrients necessary for the mole to grow. 但当他们加入营养后,一些孢子便开始发芽
However, when they added the nutrients, some of the spores began to germinate 对比多和塔顿来说,这是突破性的一刻
For beadle and Taton, this was a breakthrough moment. 他们了解到,经X光照射的孢子无法制造必需的营养
They realized that the radiated spores failed to produce the essential nutrients 因为它们的基因有缺陷. 这个发现意义重大
Because their genes were defective. This was significant. 这代表基因的工作不只是将遗传特征传到下一代
It meant that the genes were responsible for more than just passing inherited traits from one generation to the next. 它们也支配酶的制造,而徽菌要依赖酶才能生存
They also directed the production of enzyme that the mold depended on for its survival 比多和塔顿的突破就是所谓的一个基因一个酶的假说
Beadle and Taton’s breakthrough is known as the one gene one enzyme hypothesize. 乳糖不耐症这种人类新陈代谢病症就是缺少一个酶引起的
Lactose intolerance is an example of human metabolic condition caused by a single missing enzyme 因为某些人遗传到一个不能制造乳糖的基因
missing because some people ‘s inherited a gene that fail to produce lactose 因此他们无法消化乳类制品中的糖分
and unable to digest the sugar in dairy products. 这种疾病很容易治愈 只要服用含有那种酶的药片即可
This disorder can be easily treated by taking tablets containing the missing enzyme 多亏了比多和塔顿,我们对基因的功能有了基础的认识
Thanks to beadle and Taton, we gained a fundamental understanding of what genes do 也催生了新一代遗传学的伟大发现
And the stage was set for a new generation of remarkable genetic discoveries 转位子 目前为止,我们已经看到了基因的遗传方式,它们的位置和运作方式
So far, we’ve seen how genes are transmitted, where their located and how they work 但下一个伟大发现要揭露一个全新的惊奇,也就是基因的其他功能
But our next great discovery revealed a brand new surprise about what else genes can do. 这个发现来自一位令人想不到的人
And it came from a surprising source 芭芭拉麦克林托克这位女性是20世纪最杰出的科学家之一
Meet Barbara McClintock, a woman who became almost the most distinguished scientists of the twentieth century. 为了对麦克林托克有进一步的认识,我拜访了大卫柯克
To learn more about McClintock, I paved a visit to David Kirk 他在华盛顿大学的密苏里州圣路易分校教生物学
Professor of biology at Washington University in St. Louis at Missouri. 我有许多问题想问你,但我想先从芭芭拉麦克林托克问起
There are many many things I want to ask you, let me start with Barbara McClintock 她是位了不起的科学家,世界上最优秀的科学家之一
She’s a fabulous scientist, one of the world’s best. -但她遭遇许多挑战,是吧?
But she faced a lot of challenges right?
-的确是
Oh, she sure did. 原因之一就是,对大数人来说她太聪明了
Partly because she was just too bright for most people 她的脑筋动的很快,但即使她是国家科学院的院士
And her mind went to fast. But even though she is a member of academy 她不能…她从未获得任何职位
She couldn’t, she was never offered an academic position. 主要因为她是个女人
Primarily because she is a woman.
而且因为她比所有男同事要聪明
Also because she is somewhere brighter than any of her male colleagues. 许多人都怕她,怕她的脑袋
Many people were afraid of her, afraid of her brain. 1942年,她在男性主宰的遗传学领域中
In 1942, disenchanted by her lack of career advancement
因为无出头之日而心灰意冷
in the male dominated field of genetics 于是前往纽约州的冷泉港实验室工作
McClintock went to work at cold spring harbor lab in New York 她在这里创造下了历史
It was here that McClintock made history. 独自工作的她选择了研究玉米基因
Working alone, she chose to search the genetic of mains. 她特别感兴趣的是导致玉米粒呈现多种颜色的基因机制
Of special interest to her was the genetic mechanism underlying the unique mosaic of color kernels 麦克林托克在研究中注意到玉米粒的颜色
It was while studying these that McClintock began to notice a correlation
与其中一个染色体的断裂有相互关系
between the color of kernels and the break that occurred in of its chromosomes 玉米粒的颜色与染色体上发生断裂的位置互相呼应
The color of the corns correspond to where on the chromosome’s break occurred 她说,染色体发生断裂现象
A break in the chromosome occurred she said, 是因为基因从一个染色体跳跃或移位到另一个染色体上
when the gene went jump or transposed from one chromosome to another. 发生这种情形时
When this happened,
其他基因制造玉米粒色泽的活动便受到中止
it disrupted the activity of the other genes responsible for producing the pigment of the kernel 当时所有人都认为染色体和基因都是非常稳定的物质,一代传一代
Everybody at that time thought of chromosome in genes as being very stable things, just transmitted from one generation to another. 她发现她试图在染色体上找出位置的某些基因
She found that certain genes she was trying to locate on the 不同的时候会出现在不同的位置上
chromosome was being at different composition at different times 在一棵玉米株上,它会出现在染色体的某个位置上
In one corn plant, it will appear in one position of the chromosomes 但在另一棵玉米株上,它却出现在另一个位置上
And in another corn plant, it goanna different position 在第三棵上又是一个位置,怎么会这样?
At the third plant might be a third position. How could this be? 同样的基因在不同的植株上会在不同的位置?
A single gene different location on different plants 她凭直觉判断这些基因会跳跃,
And she made the intuitive way that these genes were leaping,
从一个地方移动到另一个地方,这在当时是闻所未闻
going from one place to another, which was totally unheard of at that time. 她是第一位发现在每个染色体上都存在这个问题的人
She was the first person who really saw the kind of detail of the presence of every chromosome 真的是史上第一人
Literally the first person 她可以从一颗玉米粒看出其基因,看出其染色体
She could look at the single kernel and corn and see the genes, see the chromosomes 她可以从染色体看出整个植株 真不可思议
She could look like the chromosome and see the whole plant. She was incredible. 芭芭拉麦克林托克发现了转位子
Barbara McClintock’s discovery of transposon
这个关于进化的发现极具革命性
was as evolutionary as it was revolutionary 虽然转位子引起的某些基因突变与癌症和其他疾病有关
While some genetic mutations caused by transposon that linked to caner or other diseases 转位子也有可能是因应环境变动而导致基因突变
Transposon may also be mechanism that causes genes to mutate and response to changes and environment and
并刺激了物种的演化
spur the evolution of species. 今天我们知道所有生物的基因上都有转位子
Today, we know the transposon existed in the genes of all living things 从藻类到人类
Everything from algae to human beings 所以我的博士后研究同僚史蒂夫米勒
So, my postdoctoral fellow whose name is Steve Miller
特地来此寻找一种转位子
came here specifically to try to find a transposon 与麦克林托克发现的玉米转位子拥有相同的功能
That could do what McClintock had shown the transposon to do. 他终于找到一种他能控制跳跃的转位子
He finally found one that he could control the jumping of 他在研究时发现它的跳跃能力相当好
And jumps well when he was interested in it,
于是用他的篮球偶像命名,命名为“迈克尔乔丹”
that he named after that basketball hero Michel Jordan. 所以我们在实验室里放了一张乔丹拿团藻扣篮的照片
So we always keep a big Michel Jordan on laboratory slam dunking with an algae. 每位篮球运动员的梦想就是拿藻类扣篮吧?
Every basketball dream to dunk algae 虽然麦克林托克从未象乔丹一样享有盛名 她也小有恶名
While Barbara McClintock never gained the fame of Michal Jordan. She did she even own notoriety 1951年她在冷泉港的一个研讨会上公布其研究结果
When he presented the finding of the research in 1951 at cold spring harbor symposia,
她的研究受到忽视与排挤
her work was ignored and rejected. 这个难堪的经历让她从此不在那里发表演说
This experiment made her so bitter that she never gave another lecture there 虽然她还是继续在该实验室研究 直到1992年以89岁高龄去世
Though she continued working in the lab until her death in 1992 with the age of 89 幸好她长寿,最后获得了平反的机会
She did live long enough to be vindicated 这项开创性发现公开30年后
30 years after the pioneering discovery,
麦克林托克于1983年获得诺贝尔医学奖
McClintock was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize for medicine DNA携带遗传物质 冷泉港的实验室也是下一个伟大发现的诞生地
The cold spring harbor laboratory was the sitr of our next great discovery as well 当时是1952年
It happened here in 1952, 生物学家阿尔弗雷德-赫尔希和玛莎切斯 当时正在研究噬菌体
Biologist Alfred Hershey and Martha chase was studying bacteria phage. 噬菌体是一种会感染细菌的病毒
A virus known infected bacteria 经过一种称为转变的过程后
Through process called transformation,
这种病毒会接管细菌的内部系统
the virus takes over the bacteria’s internal machinery 并迫使它制造更多的病毒
And common reduce it to produce more viruses 噬菌体由2种简单的成分组成
Bacteria phage consisted of two simple components,
蛋白质外壳和内部的神秘物质
a protein shell and inside a mysterious substance 它正是科学家已知数十年的脱氧核糖核酸,即DNA
scientists hadn’t know about for decades called deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA 赫尔希和切斯想知道
Hershey and chase wanted to know
携带遗传信息的到底是病毒中的蛋白质还是DNA
whether the protein or the DNA that virus carried genetic information 他们使用2种放射性化学物质在一组噬菌体的蛋白质上做标记
Using two radioactive chemicals they labeled the protein in one of the bacteria phages 在另一组的DNA上做标记
And the DNA in the other. 然后让培养皿中的大肠杆菌与这些病毒接触
Then exposed the culture of E. coli bacteria to these viruses 用搅拌机将细菌与中空的病毒蛋白质外壳分离后
After using a kitchen blender to separate the bacteria from the empty viral protein shells 赫尔希和切斯看到具放射性的蛋白质并没有穿透细菌壁
Hershey and chase saw the radioactive protein was not penetrating the bacterial wall 进入细菌内部的是DNA
But inside the bacteria, was the radioactive DNA 有能力主导宿主细胞制造新病毒的是DNA,不是蛋白质
It was the DNA, not the protein, that was able to directed the whole cell to make new viruses 这是个不凡的突破
It was an extraordinary breakthrough 感谢赫尔希和切斯与在他们之前铺路的科学家
Thanks to Hershey and chase and other scientists who also paved their way 突然之间我们了解了DNA的真正身份
Suddenly we understood the true identity of the DNA 它的遗传物质,以及生命的蓝图 来自一台这样的搅拌机
Its’ genetic material, the blueprint of life, and all came out of a blender like this 赫尔希因为他的研究在1969年获得诺贝尔奖
Hershey was awarded Nobel Prize in 1969 for his work 但赫尔希和切斯的搅拌机实验仍继续激发出新一代的遗传学研究
But Hershey and chasse’s blender experiments were on to inspire a new era of genetic research 首先登场的是下一个伟大发现
Beginning with our next great discovery 双链螺旋 直到1951年时,DNA的化学构造仍是个诱人的谜题
It’s late of 1951, the chemical structure of DNA remained a tantalizing enigma 英国剑桥大学的生物学家詹姆斯华生和物理学家弗朗西丝克里克
At Cambridge university in England, biologist James Watson and physicist Francis Crick 一直想解开DNA的奥秘
Had been working to unlock the secrets of the DNA molecule 但他们并不孤独
But they weren’t alone.
还有其他几组科学家参与角逐,均致力于解开相同的谜题
Several other groups of competing scientists were hard at work, trying to solve the same puzzle 当时DNA的一些重要事实已经为人所知
Some important facts about DNA were already known 例如,科学家知道DNA由4种碱基组成
For instance, scientists knew that DNA was composed of four bases 腺嘌呤(A) 胞嘧啶(C) 鸟嘌呤(G) 胸腺嘧啶(T)
Adenine, Cytosine, guanine and thymine 他们也能在X光结晶学的协助下 推演出DNA结构的信息
They also had been able to infer some of its structure with the help of x-ray crystallography 这项技术是先将X光穿过结晶的DNA分子
This technique involve passing an extra beam through a crystallized DNA molecule 继而在照相底板上捕捉其内部构造的模糊阴影图象
And capturing a vague shadow image of its internal structure on a photographic plate 有了这样的信息 再加上他们对化学构造的知识
Under with this information, along with their own knowledge of chemical structure 华生和克里克开始架构出DNA的立体模型
Watson and Crick began building a three dimensional model of DNA. 我想要排列一大一小的分子 你必须形成键结
I want to arrange I had a biggest and small molecule and somehow you had to form link bounds 这个是A 这个是T
Here’s A and here’s T. 我想将这个氢直指这个氮 于是排列出象这样的东西
And I want this hydrogen to point strikely不确定 this nitrogen. So I had something like this 然后再排列这一对
So that went to link the pair 我想将氮指向这个,然后就变成这样
And I want this hydrogen to point to this one and like this 今天你可以买到一套元件 拼凑出华生和克里克组合成的构造
Today, you can buy a kid symbol structure that Watson and Crick put together 我们言归正传 华生和克里克需要更多的资料
But we are getting ahead of ourselves, Watson and crick needed more data. 在生物学家莫里斯魏尔金的帮助下
With the help of physicist Maurice Wilkins,
他们取得一张DNA分子的X光照片
they gained access to an x-ray picture of DNA molecule 这照片是他的研究伙伴拍的 她的名字叫罗莎琳-富兰克林
that had been taken by his research partner. Her name was Rosaline Franklin 在她不知情的情况下
Without her knowledge, 华生和克里克用了那张X光图片的资料
Watson and Crick used the data from that x-ray image 并成功完成他们的模型
And successfully completed their model 在1953年的《自然》杂志上
In the 1953 issue of natural magazine 华生和克里克向全世界公布他们的惊人发现
Watson and crick revealed their amazing discovery to the world 他们的模型显示DNA分子是双链螺旋状
Their model showed that he DNA molecules was a double helix 这两条由已知的4种碱基配对而成 再以氢键连接起来
The twin strands were compared of four known bases linked together by hydrogen bonds 整个结构像螺旋梯一样成螺旋状
And the whole structure crotch不确定 screw like the spiral letter. 它们可以轻易分开,以同样的遗传代码复制自己
Which could easily pull apart in order to make copies of itself with the same encode genetic information. 华生和克里克赢得了这场竞赛
Watson and crick had won the race. DNA构造的发现引发了科学上的革命
The discovery of the structure of DNA sparked a scientific revolution 它以全新的方式照亮生命的分子与生物化学的基础
It illuminated the molecular biochemical foundation of life in a whole new way 它为其他伟大发现的研究领域开启了大门
It opened doors for areas of research
进入常人难以想象的世界
in other great discovery that few ever imagine possible. 至于华生和克里克
As for Watson and crick,
以及和他们一起发现双螺旋构造的莫里斯魏尔金
their discovery of double helix along with Maurice Wilkins 于1962年共同分享了诺贝尔奖
Won them a share of 1962 Nobel Prize 那么魏尔金的同事罗莎琳-富兰克林呢?
But whatever Wilkins’s colleague Rosaline Franklin?
尽管她对该发现有所贡献
Despite her contribution to the discovery 但她并未入选1962年的诺贝尔
She wasn’t considered for the 1962’s Nobel Prize 诺贝尔奖规定只颁发给仍在世的人
The rule state that it can only be awarded to living recipient.
罗莎琳-富兰克林于1958年死于卵巢癌
Rosaline Franklin died in 1958 of ovarian cancer. 极有可能是曝露在X光射线下的结果
Most likely caused by exposure to x-rays 欢迎来到我的世界
Welcome to my world. 这是组成我身体的数万亿个细胞之一
This is one of the trillion of cells that make up my body 细胞里的这个物质叫做细胞质
This material in the cell is called the cytoplasm 这个是细胞核
Over here is the cell’s nucleus 脆弱的核被膜内是细长的DNA
Inside the fragile nucleus envelope are the long thin strands of DNA 正如之前所知道的,DNA有遗传指令能控制细胞的新陈代谢和遗传
As we’ve seen, DNA contained genetic instruction that control the cell’s metabolic functions and heredity 听起来很简单
Sounds simple enough 但基因传送的过程令人敬畏
But the process by which this genetic transfer occurs is sublime 这就是下一个发现的故事
Is the story of our next great discovery 信使RNA 在华生和克里克定义DNA构造之前数年
Years before Watson and crick had found the structure of DNA. 科学家就知道DNA负责制造细胞质内部的蛋白质
Scientists knew that the DNA was responsible for making protein that resided inside of the cytoplasm 但他们并不知道DNA如何穿透细胞壁传送制造蛋白质的遗传讯息
But they were puzzled by how the DNA managed to transfer its genetic information for making proteins through the nucleus’s wall 谜题的解答来自几位科学家的合作
The answer to the puzzle came to the collective work of several different scientists 正如许多发现一样,它来自于一个有根据的猜测
And like many discoveries, it began with an educated guess 细胞内蛋白质的制造 我们用红色表示
The production of protein in a cell is seen here in red 科学家发现蛋白质制造频繁的细胞内含有许多这种物质
Scientists found that cells with lots of protein production contain lot of this RNA,即一种近似DNA的化学物质
RNA, a chemical similar to DNA 但它只有1链,而不是2链
But with only one strand, not two 这让科学家怀疑RNA是否介入了细胞质内蛋白质工厂的运作
This led scientists to wonder if RNA was somehow involved running the protein factory in the set of the cytoplasm 为了查证,研究人员再次求助于噬菌体
To find out, once again, researchers tuned to the bacteria phage 他们发现噬菌体将DNA注入细菌后不久
They detected that soon after the bacteria phage injected in the DNA into a bacteria,
带有病毒的RNA便出现在宿主细胞上
traces of viral RNA appeared in the host cell 而蛋白质的制造开始增多
And the production of protein began to increase 这是重要的发现
This was the moment of discovery 这是前所未见的特殊RNA种类
Here was a special kind of RNA never seen before. 随着它的单链进入细胞的蛋白质工厂
As it single strand enter one of it cell’s protein factories 它开始传输制造新蛋白质的信息
It communicated the message for making new protein.
科学家将它称作“信使RNA”
Scientists called it massager RNA. 现在,许多科学家相信
Today, many scientists believed
信使RNA和其他RNA分子是地球上最原始的化学物质后代
that massager RNA and other RNA molecules are descendents of the earth’s most primitive chemical materials. 它们属于孕育出最早的有机物之原生汤的一部分
Part of the primordial soup that cooked up the first living organism 遗传密码 正如之前所见,RNA转译DNA的指令以制造蛋白质
As we’ve just seen, RNA translated structure form DNA for making proteins 但让这个过程得以实现的遗传密码或者指令序列是什么?
But what was the genetic code,The sequence of instructions that made this process possible 1961年,分子生物学家
In 1961, molecular biologist Marshall Warren Nirenberg and
马歇尔-沃伦-尼伦伯格和博士后同僚哈里马太
post doctorial fellow Heinrich Matthaei 他们做了一系列试验,看能否在实验室中合成出蛋白质
Carried out a series of experiments to see if it can synthesize proteins in the laboratory 他们已知道有20种氨基酸介入蛋白质的制造
They already knew that 20 amino acids involved in the production of proteins 尼伦伯格和马太在实验中研究RNA
And in their experiments Nirenberg and Matthaei were working with RNA. 和DNA一样,RNA也是由4种化学碱基组成
Like DNA, RNA is made of four chemical bases 他们最后发现 当3种碱基排列成一种称为“三联体”的序列时
In the uearica不确定 moment of discovery, they found that when three of the bases allied in a specific sequence called a triplet. 三联体会译成某种氨基酸
The triplet code for a specific amino acid 三联体的顺序正是制造蛋白质的蓝图
The order of the triplets is the blueprint for the production of proteins. 现在,马歇尔-沃伦-尼伦伯格是国家卫生部的科学家
Today, Marshall Nirenberg is a research scientist at national institution of health 这对我身为一个市民,纳税人和选民有什么意义?
So what is this mean to me as a citizen and tax-payer and voter? 这表示RNA是由DNA转录而来的
What it meant to you is RNA is transcribed form DNA. DNA复制到RNA上
DNA is copied to RNA and RNA
于是RNA存有决定氨基酸和蛋白质序列的信息
contains the information that determines this sequence of amino acids protein. 所以你从父母那儿遗传到的是DNA上字母的序列
So what you inherited form your parents is the sequence of letters in DNA
而这决定了你合成的方式
that determine how you synthesize 还有你如何制造生命所需的各种蛋白质
How you make different kinds of proteins that needed for life. -这就形成了我,对吧?
That make me,
-就形成了你,成了我,没错
yes, that make you. 尼伦伯格和马太的发现解开了第一道的遗传密码
Nirenberg and Matthaei’s discovery was the first crack in the genetic code 可以看到在每个DNA分子上被译为密码的秘密词汇
A peak in the secret vocabulary encrypted in each DNA molecule 使它可以对蛋白质的合成下达命令
Enabling to instruct synthesize of proteins 接下来的5年内,尼伦伯格成功破解64组三联体
Over the next five years, Nirenberg successfully deciphered the 64 triplets
它们组成了DNA的全部词汇
that comprised the entire vocabulary of DNA 遗传密码被破解了
The genetic code had been broken. 1968年,这个发现让尼伦伯格获得诺贝尔生理学与医学奖
And in 1968, the discovery earned Marshall Nirenberg a share of Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine. 你的发现有什么重大意义?
What was this like you made this discovery? 就像是开启了一扇通往玩具店的门
Well it was opening a door to a toy shop 我们几乎无所不能,我们可以破解遗传密码
It means that we could do virtually everything we could decipher the genetic code. 所有生物都有相同的密码吗?
Every living thing, has the same code? 是的,地球上的每一种生物都使用一种密码
Yes, the one code that used by every living thing on this planet. 密码是一样的,基本上都是使用相同的语言
And it’s same, basically the same language that used 我们发现的时候,要知道我很熟悉达尔文和进化论
And when we found that out, you know I knew all about Darwin. I knew all about evolution. 但这让我一瞬间明白了
But this broted home很不确定and such immediate fashion不确定 地球上的所有生物都是相互关联的
All living things on this planet are related.
我们全都源于同一个祖先,我们的身体使用的是同一种语言
We are all derived from a common ancestor, and our bodies all speak the same language. 这对我冲击很大
It had a very mark defect on me. 在华生和克里克发现DNA构造的地方
While we are watching Watson and crick structure of DNA 尼伦伯格和马太也在此找出此构造如何运作的蓝图
Marshall Nirenberg and Matthaei uncovered the blueprint for how the structure worked 限制酶 我们目前为止所介绍的几个重要发现
The breakthrough that led to some of the discoveries since we’ve seen so fa 要不是多亏了这个熟悉的有机物也许就不会发生了
r have never happen if not for this familiar organism 它就是噬菌体 下一个发现也是因它而起
Bacteria phage and our next discovery depended on it as well 几十年来,大家认为细菌对入侵的噬菌体毫无抵抗力
For decades it was believed that bacteria were completely vulnerable to invading bacteria phage 但20世纪50年代的研究员发现那个看法有问题
But in the nineteen fifties, researchers found a wrinkled of that view. 事实上有些细菌能体抗噬菌体的感染 怎么会这样?
Certain types of bacteria were in fact resisted to being infected by a bacteria phage. How was that possible? 最早的解答在1962年由微生物学家维尔纳-阿尔伯提出
The first answer was provided in 1962 by microbiologist Werner Arber 他发现某些细菌的酶 会切碎带有病毒的DNA以击退病毒
He found that some bacteria had enzyme that fought back against the virus by cutting its viral DNA into pieces 使得病毒无法接管整个细菌
This restricted the virus from taking over the bacteria. 因此它们就被称为“限制酶”
So they were called restriction enzymes.
但它们到底是怎么运作的呢?
But how exactly did they work? 微生物学家汉密尔顿-史密斯也想解开这个秘密
Among those hoping to unlock that secrets was microbiologist Hamilton smith. 1972年在实验室工作时
Working in his lab in 1972,
史密斯让细菌和噬菌体在一起繁殖
smith was growing bacteria and bacteria phage together 他注意到病毒的DNA逐渐瓦解
When he noticed that the DNA of the virus was breaking down. 史密斯反应的很快 他将限制酶提取出来
Smith acted quickly. He purified the restriction enzyme 然后找出限制酶切断DNA的确切位置
They he identified the exactly was the restricted enzyme had severed the DAN. 接着便是发现的时刻
Then came the moment of discovery 史密斯发现限制酶反复地在病毒DNA上同一地方切割
Smith found that the enzyme were repeatedly cut the viral in the same place 他发现了第一个特定切点的限制酶
He had discovered the first site specific restriction enzyme 有了限制酶后,科学家等于有了一把分子剪刀
With restriction enzymes, scientist now had molecular scissor 可以切割DNA分子到近乎重造大自然的地步
They could used to cut the DNA molecules to virtually recreate nature. 这个发现意义重大
This is significant 这项操纵DNA的能力是现在遗传工程的基本工具,即DNA重组研究
Today, this ability to manipulate DNA is one of the basic tools in genetic engineering, what’s called recombinant DNA research. 从汉密尔顿-史密斯的发现至今 已经有数百个限制酶被发现 科学家正利用DNA重组的技术 运用在各种我们赖以为生的用途上
Since Hamilton smith’s discovery, hundreds of restriction enzymes have been identified 从制造出更有效且廉价的药物
And scientist are using recombinant DNA for a world replication on which we depend 到制造人类的胰岛素
Everything from the creation of more effective less expensive drugs
供世界上几百万名每日需要打胰岛素的糖尿病患者使用
To the production of human insulin for the millions of diabetics worldwide who rely on getting their daily doze. RNA选择性剪接 随着信使RNA的发现
With the discovery of massager RNA 科学家找到了DNA如何传送在细胞质中制造蛋白质的指令
Scientists had found the process by which DNA communicate its instructions for making protein in the cytoplasm 几十年来,他们相信这个过程根据一个简单的规则运作
For decades, they believed this process are operated by one simple rule 指令由DNA中的一个基因转录成一种信使RNA
Instructions were coded form one gene in the DNA to one type of massager RNA. 接着信使RNA再制造出一样蛋白质
Which then produced one protein 但1980年代,这个理论遭到挑战
But in the nineteen eighties, this theory was challenged
因为科学家侦测到了某个新物质
when scientists began detecting something new. 可以转录出多个信使RNA的基因
Genes that coded multiple massager RNAs,
这些RNA又制造出多个蛋白质
which then produced multiple proteins 要找出它的成因,必须由好几位科学家通力合作
It were taking the combined efforts several scientist to find out how this was possible.
但他们最后找到了答案
But finally they had their answer. 透过一种叫做选择性剪接的过程
Through a process called alternative splicing. 某些基因有能力转录出一个以上的蛋白质
Some genes are able to code For more than one protein 选择性剪接这个发现相当重要
The discovery of alternative splicing was important 它让科学家对RNA在制造蛋白质中扮演的角色有了宝贵的全新认识
Because it gives scientist valuable insight into the role that RNA plays in the production of proteins 这个认识也帮助研究人员在生化医学的运用上取得进展
And that insight helped researchers make advances in the whole range of biomedical applications 例如,科学家用选择性剪接的知识制造出更有效的止痛药
For example, scientist have used their knowledge of alternative splicing to create more effective pain-killers 有些药品的功能能抑制特定选择性剪接蛋白质和酶的产生
Some medicine are designed to block the production of specific alternative splicing proteins enzymes
以控制神经系统内的疼痛感觉
which regulate pain in the nervous system 小卫星DNA 1985年,伦敦 一个小男孩从非洲的加纳坐飞机来到这里
London, 1985, a boy arrives by plane from the Africa nation of Ghana. 他此行的目的就是为了和母亲团圆
The purpose of this visit to be reunited with his mother 但海关检查员起了疑心 小男孩的护照是伪造的
But custom spectators are suspicious the boy’s passport appears to be a forgery. 也没有证据能证明他要见的妇人的确是他母亲
And there is no prove that the woman he is meeting is really his mother. 英国政府决定将小男孩遣返
The British government decides to deport the boy 妇人在绝望中求助于侦探 他的名字是艾里克-杰弗里斯
Desperate, the woman tunes to detective for help. His name is Alec Jeffries 他并不是真正的侦探 而是莱斯特大学的遗传学家
Not a real detective, but a geneticist at Leicester University 在继续故事前 先来了解一下背景知识
Before we learn the rest of the story, a little background 1980s,科学家已经知道人与人之间的基因差异是普通的现象
By the nineteen eighties, scientist had become aware of the genetic variation among individuals is very common 他们也开始认为所谓的DNA变体
And they begun to link the presence of this so-called DNA variance
与大家庭中会导致疾病的基因有关
to the presence of the disease causing genes in large families 比如汉丁顿舞蹈症 下面继续这个故事
For example, Huntington s disease, and that bring this back to Alec Jeffries 1984年,杰弗里斯发现了某个前所未见的东西
In 1984, Jeffries found something never see before, 那是个DNA变体 由重复出现且一模一样的短DNA序列组成
It was a DNA variant formed by short identical sequences of DNA that were repeated over and over 杰弗里斯将这些重复的序列称为“小卫星DNA”
Jeffries called this repeated sequence minisatellite DNA 接着就是突破性的发现
Then came the breakthrough discovery 我们侦测到许多DNA片段
What we detected were lots of beats of DNA
至少它们在人体中变异极大,非常大
and in human’s they have clearly variable, very variable 我们发现的正是第一幅相当模糊的DNA指纹
In fact, what we got first was very murky DNA fingerprints
一时之间真相大白了
and that point is penny drops不确定 杰弗里斯的发现创造了历史
Jeffries’s discovery made history 他受邀帮助辨识加纳小男孩的身份时做出了这个发现
When he was asked to help solve the mystery of the boy from Ghana 史上第一次,DNA指纹接受测试
For the first time, DNA fingerprinting was put to the test 杰弗里斯比对了小男孩与可能是他母亲的人的DNA
Jeffries compared the DNA of the boy with the DNA of his supposed mother. 结果显示,双方的小卫星DNA极为相似
The result showed a striking similarity in the minisatellite DNA,
证实小男孩绝对是她儿子
proving beyond the doubt that the boy was her son. 她听到结果的时候,我也在场
So that when she was told
我们取得了DNA证据,而证据也被接受了
the DNA evidence has been accepted 你的儿子回来了 他可以永远和你在一起
your boy is coming back. He’s permanent with you 那位妇人的眼神动人极了
and it was the vrouw in that lady’s was magic 这是DNA第一次做到这种事
and this is, I mean the first time that had ever done this,
也是DNA首次用在分子遗传学上
the first time that DNA was in 待定molecular genetics 它应用在非医疗的情况下
and she have been used to go on an nonclinical contest
而且直接帮助到某个人
that straightly help someone. 华生和克里克对DNA双链螺旋构造的伟大发现已经是50多年前的事
It has been over fifty years since Watson and crick’s great discovery of DNA’s double helix structure 此后,科学家已探究和揭示了许多基因组的秘密
Since then, scientist have probed and revealed many of the genome secrets.
但过程中不乏惊奇
But not without some surprises RNA干扰 1997年,科学家安德鲁法尔和克雷格梅洛正在进行一系列的试验
In 1997, scientist Andrew Fire and Craig Mello were conducting a series of experiments 以便进一步了解某些基因的功能
To better understand the functions of specific genes 他们把由2股合成的RNA注入蛔虫的细胞中
The injected synthetic RNA made up of two stands into the cell of a round worm,
然后进行观察
then watched 接着发生了惊人的事
What happened next was astonishing.
蛔虫体内的某种机制破坏了双股的RNA
A mechanism within the worm cell destroyed the double stands RNA 还破坏了它自己的一些信使RNA
As well as some of its own massager RNA 结果是负责译出细胞内蛋白质制造的基因被关闭了
In fact, the genes were responsible for coding the production of proteins in the cell was tuned off 法尔和梅洛发现了后来所谓的RNA干扰
Fire and Mello has discovered what came to be known as RNA interference 现在,安德鲁法尔是斯坦福大学的遗传学家
Today, Andrew Fire is a geneticist at Stanford University 我们在进行RNA的注射实验时意外地发现了它
We sort of kemipound不确定 the experiments where we were injecting RNA
我们希望会发生特殊的状况
and hoping that things would happen that very specific things –是用小针头注射?
Things with a little?
–没错 注入容器内的一条蠕虫
Things with a little needle, right into a worm arcais不确定 虽然类似的实验已经在许多其他实验中做过了
Although similar experiments we done in systems 当你看到RNA进入时
And if you see the a situation where the RNA goes in there 它不只会关闭,这并不太令人意外
Not only is it shuttle off, which is not surprise
因为你不知道会发生什么事
you don’t know what happen then 但它还关闭细胞中的其中一个基因
It also shedding off one of it cell genes,
这个就真的叫人吃惊了
then you have surprising situation, 那是我们在1990’s的意外发现
that was really surprise that came here in 1990 RNA干扰的发现是个里程碑
The discovery of RNA interference was a milestone 它给了科学家既又潜力又强大的新科技
It gives scientist a potentially powerful new technology RNA干扰对未来有何意义?它还能应用在哪些方面?
What is the RNA interference really mean for the future? What is the applications of this? 第一步就是了解这个新的生物机制
The first one is really understanding the new biological mechanism –究竟是什么让基因关闭?
Whatever make genes silence,
–对,启动还是关闭?
Whatever make genes silence turn it off 第二步是能够概略筛选出基因的功能
The second is being able to do this general screen of what genes do. 以这个机制为工具,就能找出基因的功能
Be able to look at gene’s function, just using the mechanism tool 第三步是我所谓的专业领域的圣杯
And the third thing is sort of, I would say the Holy Grail on the field 就是我们可以将RNA用于治疗方面吗?
Is can we use RNA as therapeutic –我们可以…..治疗疾病?
Cure disease, RNA interference,
–或是任何的干扰,我们可以用它来治病吗?
can we cure disease with this 它们的模式…概念是这样的
And the model there, the idea is
选择一种因为失控的基因所造成的疾病
you take disease where the people are sick because there is a gene mad out of control –遗传病?
It’s a genetic disease.
–遗传病,还包括病毒,肿瘤,还有某些遗传病
Genetic disease which includes virus, includes tumor, includes certain genetic disease as well 问题是我们能否将那个基因关闭?
And the question is can we shut that gene off? 这个用在人类身上的“圣杯”疗法仍然遥不可及
This holy grail of therapeutic use in humans is still just out of reach 但法尔对RNA干扰的发现
But Fire’s discovery of RNA interference
为新一代的医学突破开启了一扇门
opened the door to a new generation of life saving breakthroughs 25000个基因 我们之所以身为人的部分原因在遗传密码破解后得到解答
The mystery of what makes us human was partially solved with the cracking of the genetic code 但其余的解答基于下一个伟大发现
But the rest of the answer lay on our next great discovery 把我们称为“基因组”的完整基因蓝图定序
The sequencing of our complete genetic blueprint called the genome 这项工作被成为历史上规模最大的科学合作
The effort have been called the largest collaboration in history 但刚开始时是2组团队互相竞赛 想抢先完成人类基因组的定序
But it began as a race between two teams vying to be the first to sequence the human genome 到了1990年,2组团队开始携手合作
By 1990, the team had joined in forces 克雷格文特是其中一组团队领袖
Craig Venter was one of the team’s leaders 你是如何开始这项工作的?是什么让你想把人类基因组定序?
How did you get started on this thing? What make you want to sequence the human genome? 我的研究生涯一开始是要找一个基因
Well, my experimental career was looking for one gene, 脑部和心脏内肾上腺素接受体的基因
gene for the adrenalin receptor for the brain, the heart 我花了10年才找到1个基因
and it took ten years to get one 我选择研究人类的整个基因组
and the choice was trying to look the entire human genome
我们对此一无所知,当时只找到几百个基因
which we had sensuously no knowledge of only a few hundred genes at the time 有人猜测或许共有30万个基因
and the speculation may be there were three hundred thousand genes 这对人类来说是最重要的信息 而我们对此一无所知
so here’s the most important information to our humanity and we knew sensuously nothing about it 到了2000年6月 2组团队已经准备好要缔造历史了
by June 2000, the two teams were ready to make history 今天是人类10万年的记录中历史性的一刻
today, marks the historical point in the one hundred thousand year record of humanity 我们今天首次宣布人类这个物种能解读其基因密码的化学字母
we are announcing today for the first time our species can read the chemical letters of genetic code 那么你找到了什么?
so what did you find 首先,我们发现最简单的事就是
so fist, the most simple thing we found 我们的基因数目比之前一些人预测的数字要少的多
was that we have only a tiny fraction of genes that some people were predicting 我们没有找到30万个,只找到2万6千个
that a set of three hundred of thousand, we found twenty thousand 于是我们发现,人与人之间的差异是相当小的
then we found that the variation between humans is remarkably low 我们几乎和其他人没什么两样
or almost virtually identical to each other 接着,借助将其他哺乳类动物的基因组定序
and by sequence in the genome of other mammals of sequence
我们将我的标准型贵宾狗-影子进行定序
my standard of poodle shadow 于是我们有了狗的基因组,老鼠的,田鼠的
with the dog genome, the mouth genome, the rat genome 我们目前正在将恒河猴的基因组定序
we are not doing the monkey rhesus genome here 我们发现哺乳类动物的基因大多一样,而且序列相同
we found out that all mammals share most of the genes on the same order
有相同的基因组
or the same sets of genes 而且它们都是从一个染色体移动到另一个染色体
and its just move around from one chromosome to another 那么基因定序将会把我们带向何方?
so where is this all the sequencing taken us 我从一开始就主张,这会为科学奠定全新的基础
oh, whatever you found in the beginning was this laid a whole new foundation for science 人们都在期待神奇的治疗方法,我想这方面被过渡渲染了
that people were respecting miracle cures there was lots of over high待定 但我花了10年的时间去做肾上腺素接受体的实验
but what took me a decade to do was the receptor of adrenalin –你最早的那个实验?
this one you first started out. .
—没错
That’s right 现在世界上任何一位能上网的科学家或学生
Now, any scientist, any studio in the world that has access in the internet 在5秒或几秒钟之内便可得到这长达10年的研究发现
Can make that same decades long discovering five seconds or a few seconds 而我们还不了解大部分的人类基因有何功能
And most human genes without yet even functions about them 所以这个资讯让我们开始建造新的基础
So we are studying a new foundation having this information
他们已经知道基因的构造
to have the structure of the genes. 他们可以研究它的功能
they can study their function 这已经改变了我们对进化的观点
and this change our view of evolution 我们与其他哺乳动物有相似的基因组
or similar with mammal’s genome,
甚至是植物与细菌的基因组也一样
even were plants and bacteria’s genome 这都影响了已经开发出新诊断方法的医学界
its compatible medicine already with new diagnostics 使我们了解基因的复杂度与人类的特征和疾病是相关的
understanding the complexity of genes in search with human traits
而这将会是未来的一大挑战
that’s can be a huge challenge for the future 当你和你的团队完成定序后,你有什么感想?
So, how did you feel when your group sequence finished, did it, hold it up? 当我们完成定序,写完叙述的论文时
When we finished it, finished witting the paper describing for the first time 那大概是我这辈子最有成就感的一刻
It was published in one of the most famous待定 that I have ever have in my life 那是一段美妙的时光,我很满意
And it was just a fantastic period of satisfaction 我们的团队试图为人类历史做出贡献时所得到的成就
with whatever our team did and tried to contribute to the history of humanity 这的确难以置信,但从孟德尔发现遗传法则
It’s hard to believe but from Gregor Mendel s great discovery of the laws of heredity
到完成人类基因组定序,只经过了150年
to the complete sequencing of the human genome, has been a mere a hundred and fifty years 多亏了科学史上的几个最伟大的发现
But thanks to some of the greatest discoveries in the history of science 这短短的时间足以让我们了解生命中最深奥的几个秘密
It has been entire of us to understand some of the life’s deep secrets 也了解使所有的生物紧密结合的基因关联
And to understand the genetic ties that bind all living organism that include your brother. Thanks bill –这些生物也包括你,老哥.
No no thank you for taking the time…
–谢谢,比尔
thanks bill 不…我要感谢你 你抽空过来和我一起发现…
no, it’s i who must thank you for taking time
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2 thoughts on “100 Greatest – 100 Khám Phá Vĩ Đại – Ep6: Genetics (Di truyền học) Sub Vi-Eng-Chi

  1. video clip rất hay. mong rằng xẽ có nhiều clip thuộc thể lọa khoa học để chugns ta có thể hiểu thêm về khoa học. một thứ không thể thiếu để phát triển con người.

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