Hello and welcome back to the next episode
Welcome to the next episode, welcome to the future! This is the third LifeXtenShow trivia, and this time, it’s my turn to punish Nicola for the mean questions that he made me answer. All right, I’m ready.
So, you need to know first that Nicola is a mathematician, but he’s recently trying to be studying chemistry and biology. I started like a year and a half ago. Relatively recently, academically speaking, recently. So, he’s trying to move into the field of biology. Not moving, I’m integrating.
And, so, integrating biology into his knowledge. So, today, we’re going to test his knowledge on human biology fun facts. All right. It’s gonna be my revenge. According to the endosymbiotic theory, You want me to spell that for you? Which of the following organelles was originally a primitive bacterial cell? You know already? Well, go ahead, let’s see what the options are. That was internalized into a bigger cell to establish a symbiotic relationship with it. You know it, don’t tell me you know it. I have an extra one, I have a spare question if you know it already. Well, I might be surprised.
If you know it, you know it. Answer one, A, answer A, one, answer one: A!
A? Answer A. Lysosome. Answer B, mitochondria. Answer C. Golgi apparatus, answer D, the nucleus. Can you see it?
No, I can’t, but for this one, I really don’t need to see it, because… Okay, go on. So A was lysosome, B mitochondria, C was Golgi apparatus, and D was the nucleus. Yes. I don’t think the nucleus is an organelle. Okay, well, all right. As far as I know, mitochondria, the theory goes that they are bacteria that were originally eaten by the cell. By some cells, and that- Ah, you got it correct, fine, got it, thank you, it’s correct. Next question.
All right. What happens if you put a human ethyrocyte into clean water at 37 degrees (C)? What the… is an erythrocyte? Well, I remember…
They’re red blood cells. A, absolutely nothing. At least it gets wet. That’s a fair point, that’s a fair point. B, it shrinks. C, it bursts. D, it duplicates. A red blood cell in water at 37 degrees…
Clean water, at 37 degrees Celsius. I’m puzzled by the 37 degree requirement, because that’s pretty much the temperature you have when you have a fever. That can’t be a coincidence, so I wonder what happens when you have a fever. Basically, to your red blood cells. I’ll give you this, though. In the laboratory at least, we consider 37 degrees as standard physiological. It’s not mine, I can tell you that.
Fair enough, but I’ll give you this hint. 37 degrees is usually what, in biology research, is considered the optimal temperature for physiology. For humans as well?
Mammals in general, yes. If it is the optimal temperature, I don’t see why it should shrink, because otherwise they would just shrink all the time. And they can’t shrink forever, so we’ll exclude that. The others are it bursts and it duplicates. And absolutely nothing. Of course. It wouldn’t burst, because optimal temperatures, thenyour blood cells would burst. Optimal temperature, that’s not very optimal, I think. I’m tempted between absolutely nothing and it replicates. It doesn’t feel completely stupid to me that under normal circumstances, your blood cells reproduce. So, what’s your answer? I’m going to go with absolutely nothing. Is that your answer? That’s what I said. Muaaahahahahah. It’s wrong.
Correct? It’s wrong? What happens?
You see, you were focusing on the wrong detail. All right? 37 degrees is great for cells, clean water is not. Cells into clean water, they burst. Because of the wrong osmolarity. Oh, right. Cells are usually into solutions with specific amounts of salts. That’s a good point.
If you put them into water, through osmosis, the water would go inside the cells and burst. Which of the following is not a protein? A, Sonic hedgehog. B, Smaug. Super Mario? C, C-3PO. Oh, for…
D, Dumbledore. Now, I know, there is no reason why you should know this. I just thought it was a fun question. If you get it, fine. I mean, when you do science, one of the funny things, the most entertaining thing’s that you get to name things. Exactly. And only one of these is not actually a protein. So Sonic hedgehog is definitely… wait a moment, it is a protein, and there is a gene called that. And so there is a protein, because they have the same name. Not always, but okay. Well, generally. They write names in italics.
I’m impressed. I am impressed. Whereas the genes, they are…
Oh, this guy’s studying really hard. I’m going to say that probably… I have a feeling that it is the Star Wars dude that is the wrong one. You confirm that this is your answer? Yeah. Wrong. Dumbledore is a great wizard but not a protein. If I say “chromosome”, everyone would think of the usual weird-looking sausages attached together forming an X-shaped structure. But in reality, when does the DNA acquire this form? A, during the M phase, during the mitosis, the cell replication? B, never, it happens only in movies. C, during the DNA replication. D, during the S phase, where S stands for sausage-shaped DNA. I feel that this is the, um…
We have talked about this. I know, but the last one seems to be the fake option here. Really?! We’ve seen three proteins called Sonic hedgehog, Smaug, and C-3PO. Are you surprised? That’s a fair point, but I’m going to say that it happens during replication, what option was that? DNA replication or cell replication? There are A, during the M phase, mitosis or cell replication Or C, during the DNA replication.
Well, if cells replicate, the DNA has to have… duplicated it first. What is the cell going to do without a copy of the DNA, so I would say that it’d That implies that the X-shaped indicates the duplication. Are you sure about that? No, I’m kind of beginning to doubt, because I’m thinking, well maybe, when it is in an X shape, it is about to split with the whole cell. One half goes to the new cell, and one half goes to the original cell, so to speak, even though they both are the original cell in a way. So, I actually am divided. Got the joke, I’m divided. [exhausted sigh] I would say either DNA replication or cell replication. You don’t like the S sausage. No, I don’t like the sausage thing. But I’m going to go with my original intuition. [babbling] Okay, fine. When DNA replication, fine. During DNA replication? Come on, hurt me. You were doing well. During the M phase, when the cell replicates. I want to make this clear, I gave this question because I knew that we talked about this. It has the purpose of organizing the DNA in such a way that it’s easy to segregate to prepare for replication. I almost got there, I remember that we talked about this before, I just didn’t remember the details. But I got almost, so you have to give me that. This is from the 2013 review The Hallmarks of Aging. Oh, if I screw this one up, I’m gonna be fired. So, altered intercellular communication is one of the nine hallmarks of aging as stated in the Cell review from 2013, The Hallmarks of Aging. Link in description, if you’re interested. Which of the following compounds has shown to increase the lifespan of mice, acting on this specific hallmark? The one that I mentioned.
I will never know. All right, fine. A, fluoxetine, an antidepressant. B, aspirin, an anti-inflammatory. C, psilocybin, a psychedelic. D, tetrahydrocannabinol. And that is a what? It’s a lipid found in plants. There are too many people laughing in this room. The first option is a drug that you use on rats in the lab, isn’t it? Mice, but yeah. I’ve used that, I work with fluoxetine, yes, which is an antidepressant. But I don’t work on life extension. Aspirin, I could consider because anti-inflammatory; one of the problems with aging is that you get chronic inflammation, so that could Also, I know that aspirin might prevent heart attacks, I think the science is a bit divided on that. I’m not entirely sure. Well, my reputation is already lost, prepare for the next quiz. I’m gonna go with aspirin. Well done, it’s correct. It has been shown that administration of aspirin by fighting the inflammatory response created by an accumulation of senescent cells, which disrupt intercellular communication, seems to increase the lifespan of mice. Does aspirin interfere with senescent, or just with inflammatory? It doesn’t touch the cells. No, inflammatory response. The point is that senescent cells usually also induce inflammatory response, which then disrupts intercellular communication. So, the Hallmarks are interconnected with each other, but if we talk about inflammation and intercellular communication, aspirin is an anti-inflammatory; that’s what it does, and it has been shown that in mice, it increases their lifespan. Right, so if you want to interfere with your own altered intercellular communication by stuffing yourself with aspirin, don’t. That’s probably a really bad idea.
Not a good idea, no. I lost. Unfortunately. I’m sorry. I thought, I didn’t mean to…
Well, it’s fair enough. None of us has managed to win at trivia yet.
Not yet. Thank you very much for watching this video, if you watched it to the end, otherwise, I could say more but you already closed it. See you next time for the next videos, the next trivia, have a good day. Remember to like, comment, and subscribe.
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