Chromosome 5 – Telomerase: Resetting the biological clock
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Chromosome 5 – Telomerase: Resetting the biological clock


[MUSIC PLAYING] So you can tell the age of shoes
just by looking at them. Here’s a new pair, and they’ve
got nice laces, with little plastic caps on the end that
stop them from fraying. These are a different story. The laces are quite
old and worn away. And on this one, the plastic
cap’s gone completely, and the ends are really frayed. The same is true of
our chromosomes. They’ve got caps on the end
called telomeres, and they also wear away over time. It turns out, that this is
actually a really important mechanism for cells to know
how old they are. So as the telomeres get shorter
and shorter, the cells undergo a process called
replicative senescence. Essentially, it’s sitting there
not dividing, but also, damaging the tissue around it. And that’s thought to contribute
to many of the diseases of older age. But there’s an issue. All our cells have telomeres
that get shorter as the cells divide. But we pass our chromosomes
onto our children. So why don’t they start
off life with really short telomeres? It turns out, this is all down
to an enzyme called telomerase that’s encoded on
chromosome 5. And telomerase, essentially,
resets the biological clock. Well, this is telomerase. I know it looks ridiculous, but
it is, actually, a very good representation
of the enzyme. We know it has a mitten shape. And inside is a template,
which allows it to make repeats of DNA. So we take DNA precursors, add
them into the telomerase enzyme, and it simply adds
them on to the end of the chromosome. And we have multiple repeats on
the end of the chromosome, protecting the rest
of the DNA. So this is a fundamental
mechanism in germ cells and stem cells. But what happens when
it goes wrong? Well, if you don’t have enough
telomerase then the telomeres are too short and the cells
will age prematurely. On the other hand, if telomerase
is switched on in all the cells of the body,
they all extend their telomeres, the cells don’t know
how old they are, they will grow and divide
all the time. And that can give
rise to cancer. So telomerase is an incredibly
important enzyme. Apart from a few unusual
exceptions, like onions and fruit flies, it’s really well
conserved all the way across nature, from yeast to humans. And now we know so much more
about what it is, and how it works, there’s a possibility
of being able to design new drugs that can target telomerase
and allow people to live healthier lives.

30 thoughts on “Chromosome 5 – Telomerase: Resetting the biological clock

  1. Chromosome 5 – Telomerase: Resetting the biological clock 
    Shoelace-like caps at the end of chromosomes, called telomeres, are one of the ways cells can tell how old they are. Find out how a region of chromosome 5 helps the body regulate the length of these telomeres and how studying this process is helping scientists to better understand ageing and the development of cancer.

    Chromosome 5 – Telomerase: Resetting the biological clock

  2. You know we yanks do not use the word "feckless" (I had to wiki it but on to the story) Youse guys keep inflaming my "feckless" lust!

  3. Well at least this had a little bit more than kindergarten learning in it. We got a big word (disheartened whoo). Better than nothing.

  4. I am sure that telomerase of mouse is no switched off and mouse lives longer than human. Great job spending money targeting telomerase

  5. Inspiration for the oven glove came from this graphical representation of telomerase: http://howonearthradio.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/telomerase_template.jpeg 

  6. If you want to know more about this, check out my channel "drpark65" or read my book "Telomere Timebombs: Defusing the Terror of Aging"

  7. back up a sec; what was that about flies and onions being the same as everything else in terms of telemerase expression?

  8. I would also look at our immune system, which seems to stop functioning as we age. Also we need a more efficient ribosome to reduce or stop copying errors.

  9. didn't you mean longer lives. why not add some SARMS while you are at it for stronger bones and more muscle mass. You could even give aromatase inhibitors at pre-growth plates fusing to attenuate height. Science could do anything one could imagine. The important question is " SHOULD YOU alter by non natural means?"  look at selective breeding it seems to work better. Programming dna should be with time*environment*stresses=diversity/survival*traits  it also is called survival of the fittest.

  10. 1. find a way to provide chelated minerals, essential fatty acid, branch chain amino acids, and of course polysaccharides, maybe in the form of ribose. This is base for DNA replication. 2. exposure to certain light frequencies for DNA up regulation.311nm Vitamin D  production of hormones. 668nm for collagen formation. 400-450nm for circadian rhythms and more. 3. higher atmospheric pressures to enhance oxidant levels in the body. 4. but not least a stronger magnetic field so when you travel through its field lines you obtain more Energy. Look up jet lag and shipping logs on traversing certain directions made travelers sick or well.  
    So if you can do better than the environmental/epigenetics then hats  off to ya.    
                              

  11. The cancer link is a silly old speculation, just like the idiotic catastrophic micro black hole theory when the LHC was doing its first runs… even some ok nuclear physicists were giving some credibility to the black hole theory and yet no micro black hole was observed even though models said they have to exist. It is, and I repeat it is absolutely not proven that having the telomeres at the same length all the time will knock out the regulators of cell division and even spawn cancerous cells. So silly! Activating telomerase made the mice in 2012 appear younger with delayed aging without any visibile cancer clues or indicators (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22585399). Grow and divide all the time…sheeesh!
    I think to realize this is a difference between a good scientist and a shit scientist.. good scientists thinks of all the possibilities while the shit scientist just jumps to conlcusions. Why Dr.Cox, why did you have to jump to silly conclusions? I know why! Average IQ!

  12. My father is 80 years old. He is starting on Ta-65. I'm so excited as I cannot wait to see him to look like 21 years old again!

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