Citizen Scientist, Origami, Virtual Reality, and more! | Simply Science
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Citizen Scientist, Origami, Virtual Reality, and more! | Simply Science


♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪>>HELLO AGAIN, AND WELCOME TO SIMPLY SCIENCE. I’M BARRY MITCHELL, AND TODAY WE’RE AT THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MATHEMATICS ON EAST 26TH STREET TO CHECK OUT A NEW EXHIBIT ON ORIGAMI. BUT FIRST, YOU KNOW YOU DON’T HAVE TO HAVE A BIOLOGY DEGREE TO BE A SCIENTIST IN YOUR OWN BACKYARD. IN FACT, YOU DON’T EVEN NEED A BACKYARD. ARI GOLDBERG SHOWS US HOW WE CAN BE CITIZEN SCIENTISTS RIGHT HERE IN NEW YORK CITY. KING ME. ALL RIGHT. ♪ [UPBEAT MUSIC] ♪>>URBAN LANDSCAPES ARE NOT CONDUCIVE TO NATURE STUDY, SO THESE KIDS LEARN LESSONS, “DON’T GO OUT ALONE. DON’T WANDER INTO THE BUSHES. DON’T PICK SOMETHING UP OFF THE GROUND.” YOU’VE GOT TO GO POKE SOMETHING GROSS AND SEE WHAT IT DOES AND EXPLORE IT. AND THAT CURIOSITY CAN LEAD TO I THINK LIFE CHANGING CAREER CHANGES. SO MANY KIDS WHO DO SCIENCE WELL DON’T EVEN REALIZE THEY CAN DO IT. >>NEW YORK CITY MAY NOT SEEM LIKE IT’S THE BEST PLACE TO GROW UP IF YOU’RE INTERESTED IN WILDLIFE. BUT KINGSBOROUGH COMMUNITY COLLEGE ECOLOGY PROFESSOR CHRISTINA COLOGNE IS A BIG BELIEVER THAT ANYONE CAN BE A CITIZEN SCIENTIST OUT IN THE FIELD EVEN IN NEW YORK CITY. >>UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF SOMEBODY WHO UNDERSTANDS THE BASICS OF SCIENCE A TEAM OF NON-SCIENTISTS, VOLUNTEERS, STUDENTS, HIGH SCHOOL KIDS, CAN EFFECTIVELY BECOME A TOUR DE FORCE COLLECTING DATA THAT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR ANY ONE SCIENTIST TO COLLECT. WHETHER IT’S MONITORING THE MIGRATION OF BUTTERFLIES, WHETHER IT’S LOOKING AT THE PHENOLOGY OR THE FRUITING OF TREES, ANYBODY CAN TELL A LEAF FROM A FLOWER, ANYBODY CAN TELL A MONARCH BUTTERFLY FROM A MOTH. BUT WHAT A SCIENTIST CAN’T DO IS KNOW THAT ALL OVER THE COUNTRY THERE’S ALL THESE DATA POINTS THAT COULD BE RECORDED BY A LITTLE OLD LADY IN HER BACKYARD, A KID IN A SCHOOL YARD. >>THE CONCEPT OF CITIZEN SCIENCE, IN ESSENCE PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH WAS DEFINED IN THE MID-1990S, AND EVEN BETWEEN THE SKYSCRAPERS AND PAVEMENT OF NEW YORK, YOU MIGHT BE SURPRISED TO LEARN HOW MANY OPPORTUNITIES THERE ARE TO STUDY WILDLIFE AS A CITIZEN SCIENTIST HERE. FOR EXAMPLE, COLOGNE’S STUDENTS ARE VITAL TO HER STUDIES ON HORSESHOE CRAB BREEDING. >>WE HAVE HORSESHOE CRABS THAT COME ASHORE AND SPAWN ON OUR CAMPUS, SO WE CAN GO RIGHT DOWN TO THE WATER’S EDGE. AFTER THE ADULTS ARE FINISHED WITH THEIR SPAWNING PEAKS, I GO OUT WITH MY STUDENTS AND WE COLLECT SAMPLES OF SAND ALL ALONG THE BEACH AND BRING IT BACK INTO THE LABORATORY AND LOOK FOR THOSE EGGS. AND THAT’S VERY LABOR INTENSIVE, BUT THE STUDENTS REALLY LOVE IT BECAUSE WE’RE GOING TO THE BEACH. AND THEY COME INTO THE LAB AND THEY GET TO SEE WHAT WAS IN THOSE SAND SAMPLES. >>QUITE SIMPLY, WITHOUT THE STUDENTS THERE JUST WOULDN’T BE ENOUGH MANPOWER TO SORT THROUGH ALL OF THE SAMPLES, TO COUNT ALL OF THE EGGS, TO KEEP TRACK OF THE HORSESHOE CRABS. AND TO BE SURE, YOU DON’T EVEN NEED TO BE A COLLEGE STUDENT TO BE A CITIZEN SCIENTIST. ONE OF THE OTHER PROGRAMS COLOGNE WORKS WITH IS GOTHAM COYOTE, WHICH REGULARLY EMPLOYS HIGH SCHOOLERS EVEN TO HELP KEEP TRACK OF NEW YORK CITY’S COYOTE POPULATION.>>I WILL GIVE THEM A FLASH DRIVE WITH 10,000 PHOTOGRAPHS OF DIFFERENT ANIMALS IN A KIND OF A DIM FORESTED AREA AND IF THEY HAVE GOOD EYESIGHT, THEY CAN TELL ME, “OH, YEAH, THERE WAS FOUR RACCOON IN THAT PICTURE, AND THEN THERE WAS A COYOTE THAT CAME BY. AND THE NEXT PICTURE IT WAS THE SAME COYOTE.” AND ALL OF THAT CAN BE PUT INTO A DATABASE THAT IS PRICELESS FOR THE SCIENTISTS WHO THEN TAKE THAT DATA TO THE NEXT LEVEL. >>IF YOU’RE INTERESTED IN CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECTS, THERE’RE MYRIAD PROGRAMS YOU CAN PARTICIPATE IN AROUND THE CITY NO MATTER YOUR AGE OR EDUCATION. FROM THE NEW YORK AUDUBON TO THE BOTANICAL GARDENS, A SIMPLE WEB SEARCH BRINGS UP DOZENS OF OPPORTUNITIES. FOR COLOGNE BEING A CITIZEN SCIENTIST IS A FORM OF CIVIC ENGAGEMENT, BECAUSE JUST SINCE YOU GROWN UP SURROUNDED BY CONCRETE, DOESN’T MEAN YOU CAN’T EXPLORE THE WILDLIFE HIDING IN YOUR CITY. >>ONCE THEY LEARN THAT SKILL SET, BECOMING A SCIENTIST IS NOT NECESSARILY ANY MORE DIFFICULT THAN BECOMING AN EXPERT IN ANYTHING ELSE. AND THEY WILL PROBLEM SOLVE IN WAYS THAT SCIENTISTS ARE SOMETIMES TRAINED NOT TO PROBLEM SOLVE IN BECAUSE WE’RE TRAINED TO DO THINGS A CERTAIN WAY, AND THEY WILL COME UP WITH FANTASTIC DATA.>>FROM HORSESHOE CRABS TO COYOTES, THERE’S A LOT MORE WILDLIFE TO STUDY IN NEW YORK CITY THAN ONE MIGHT THINK. FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE, I’M ARI GOLDBERG.>>BIRDS TRAVEL A LONG DISTANCE, AND LIKE HUMANS ON THE JERSEY TURNPIKE, THEY ALSO NEED A REST STOP. HERE’S SUSAN JHUN. CAN I SEE YOUR LEARNER’S PERMIT? >>IT’S WELL DOCUMENTED THAT NEW YORK CITY HAS A LARGE MIGRATING BIRD POPULATION THAT GOES THROUGH IT. NEW YORK IS ON AN ESTUARY SO IT’S ALWAYS BEEN A PLACE WHERE BIRDS COME. >>BUT THE PLACES WHERE BIRDS GO ARE DISAPPEARING. ACCORDING TO A RECENT REPORT BY THE UNITED NATIONS, NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR MANY ANIMALS HAVE BEEN LOST. ANINA GERCHICK, AN OUTDOOR INSTALLATION ARTIST, LANDSCAPE DESIGNER, AND PAINTER, CREATED BIRDLINK, A LIVING SCULPTURE AND HABITAT FOR BIRDS. >>THERE ARE FOUR FLYWAYS IN THE COUNTRY, SO WE KNOW THAT NEW YORK CITY IS ON THE ATLANTIC FLYWAY. EVERY YEAR PEOPLE GO TO CENTRAL PARK AND PLACES LIKE THAT AND THEY COUNT THE BIRDS. YOU SEE EXOTIC BIRDS, YOU KNOW, YELLOW WARBLERS AND PURPLE FINCHES AND THESE SOUTH AMERICAN KINDS OF BIRDS. ♪ [UPBEAT MUSIC] ♪>>ANINA’S LIVING SCULPTURE USES NATIVE PLANTS TO CREATE A HABITAT, A REST STOP IF YOU WILL, FOR BIRDS MIGRATING NORTH IN THE SUMMER AND SOUTH IN THE WINTER. TYPICALLY, BIRDS MOVE FROM AN AREA WITH LOW RESOURCES TO AN AREA OF ABUNDANCE, SO WHEN FOOD AND NESTING OPTIONS ARE SCARCE, THEY MIGRATE TO A NEW HABITAT WHERE THINGS ARE PLENTIFUL, THEN REPEAT THE PROCESS. BUT THERE ISN’T A ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL HABITAT. EVERY BIRD MIGRATES TO AN AREA THAT HAS THE RIGHT BALANCE OF FOOD AND SHELTER SO THERE IS A LOT OF SCIENCE AND ART BEHIND BIRDLINK’S DESIGN.>>I DID CONSULT WITH SOME SCIENTISTS AT CORNELL LAB OF ORNITHOLOGY, AND THEY CAME BACK AND THEY SAID, “WELL, THEY LIKE TO HAVE NOOKS AND CRANNIES TO GET INTO FOR SHELTER, AND THEY ALSO LIKE THE KINDS OF WINDOW BOX THINGS WHERE THEY CAN PERCH.” THESE PLANTS WERE ALL SELECTED FROM A DATABASE THAT THE NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY PUTS OUT CALLED PLANTS FOR BIRDS. YOU PUT IN A ZIP CODE, AND THEY TELL YOU EXACTLY WHICH NATIVE PLANTS WHETHER IT’S TREES, SHRUBS, FLOWERS, WHICH ONES ARE NATIVE TO THAT ZIP CODE AND WHICH BIRDS THOSE PLANTS WILL ATTRACT. BIRDS ARE WILDLIFE IN THE CITY. FOR ONE THING THEY DON’T BOTHER PEOPLE FOR THE MOST PART. AND AS A MATTER OF A FACT, PEOPLE REALLY ARE FASCINATED BY BIRDS.>>NOW, THERE ARE TWO BIRDLINKS IN THE CITY, A PERMANENT HABITAT AT EAST RIVER PARK IN BROOKLYN, AND THIS TEMPORARY ONE HERE AT SARAH G. ROOSEVELT PARK ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE. THOUGH THERE ARE ONLY TWO OF THEM, ANINA HOPES THAT MORE BIRDLINKS WILL BE INSTALLED AT OTHER LOCATIONS THROUGHOUT THE CITY AND ALONG THE EASTERN FLYWAY. >>THE REAL HOPE IS TO DO SOMETHING THAT IS REPEATED ALONG THE CORRIDORS, SO SAY, YOU KNOW, TRAFFIC TRIANGLES IN THE CITY, LIKE EVERY CERTAIN DISTANCE. TO HAVE THAT KIND OF A, OF A CONTINUITY AND REPETITION, THAT’S, THAT’S THE REAL HOPE. >>NOW THERE’S A PLACE FOR CARDINALS, YELLOW WARBLERS, AND OTHER BIRDS TO REST DURING THEIR LONG JOURNEYS. FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE, I’M SUSAN JHUN. ♪ [GUITAR MUSIC] ♪>>VIRTUAL REALITY AND AUGMENTED REALITY ARE TWO POPULAR FORMS OF PLAYING AND INTERACTING WITH VIDEO GAMES. AND THEY’RE NOW BEING USED TO HELP KIDS WITH AUTISM AND SOCIAL ANXIETY. HERE’S TINABETH PIÑA WITH MORE. ♪ [INTENSE MUSIC] ♪>>WHEN YOU HEAR THE WORDS VIRTUAL AND AUGMENTED REALITY, YOU MIGHT THINK MOVIES LIKE THE SIMULATIONS IN THE MATRIX.>>FOR ALL THE THINGS I DID TO AVOID- >>OR THE GLASSES TONY STARK WEARS IN THE IRONMAN, CAPTAIN AMERICA, AND AVENGERS FILMS. >>SWING HER AROUND. >>BUT WHILE THIS TECHNOLOGY MIGHT APPEAR TO BE HOLLYWOOD MAGIC, THE REAL THING ISN’T TOO FAR OFF. AUGMENTED AND VIRTUAL REALITY GOGGLES CAN ENHANCE ARE EXISTING WORLD OR TAKE US TO A NEW ONE. THEY’RE ESPECIALLY POPULAR IN VIDEO GAMES WHERE PLAYERS CAN NOW FULLY IMMERSE THEMSELVES INTO THEIR FAVORITE GAMES WORLD.>>DON’T HAVE NOBODY TO CALL MY OWN. >>IN THE POST-APOCALYPTIC FALL OUT FOUR TO A PIXEL BLOCK BUILDER LIKE MINDCRAFT. >>WHEN I REFER TO THE WORD VR OR AR, MOST OFTEN TIMES PEOPLE THINK OF GAMES, BUT BECAUSE SO MANY INDUSTRIES ARE STARTING TO ADAPT IT INTO THEIR OWN WAY IT’S BECOMING MORE COMMERCIAL AND ACCESSIBLE. THE CAMERAS THAT ARE SURROUNDING ME, ALL AROUND->>A FORMER ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER, JULLIA SUHYOUNG LIM, NOW DESIGNS VIRTUAL AND AUGMENTED REALITY APPS FOR BOTH GENERAL AND SPECIAL EDUCATION STUDENTS. AUGMENTED REALITY OR AR IS A LAYER OF VIRTUAL SPACE OR A HOLOGRAM ADDED TO OUR WORLD USING A TABLET OR A HEADSET LIKE THE HOLLOW LENS. WHILE VIRTUAL REALITY OR VR IS WHEN THE HEADSET DISPLAYS A NEW COMPUTERIZED WORLD. JULIA’S TEAM IS FINDING NEW WAYS TO USE BOTH TO CREATE MORE ACTIVE CLASSROOM EXPERIENCES, INCLUDING PALLY, AN AR APP FOR STUDENTS ANXIOUS OVER SOCIAL CHANGE. >>EVEN FOR GENERAL ED STUDENTS THESE DAYS TRANSITIONING INTO MIDDLE SCHOOL IS VERY STRESSFUL BECAUSE SOCIAL DYNAMICS CHANGE, EVERYTHING CHANGES, AND THEY’RE SCARED OF A LOT OF THINGS THAT THEY’VE NEVER EXPERIENCED IN LIFE. FOR THE SPECIAL ED LEARNER, IT BECOMES A BIGGER CONCERN.>>PALLY HELPS STUDENTS VISUALIZE NEW SOCIAL SITUATIONS AND PRACTICE SOCIAL INTERACTION WITH HOLOGRAPHIC CHARACTERS USING A HOLLOW LENS HEADSET.>>THE STUDENT MIGHT SEE FROM FAR A HOLOGRAPHIC VIRTUAL CHARACTER CRYING. THE STUDENT OR THE USER CAN APPROACH THE CHARACTER AND TALK TO THE CHARACTER. AND BASED ON WHAT THE USER SAYS OR THE TYPE OF MOTION THAT THE USER DOES, THE VIRTUAL CHARACTER WILL REACT DIFFERENTLY. >>AUGMENTED REALITY CAN ALSO BE ACHIEVED ON TABLETS LIKE THE IPAD. JULLIA’S APP AROUND HELPS AUTISTIC STUDENTS WITH SHAPE RECOGNITION. THE APP CIRCLES REAL LIFE OBJECTS AS STUDENTS WITH AUTISM CAN STRUGGLE WITH GENERALIZATION. AS SOCIAL ANXIETY CAN CAUSE PEOPLE TO STUTTER, JULLIA’S TEAM ALSO DESIGNED VERBAL, A VR EXPOSURE THERAPY APP THAT USES OCULUS RIFT GOGGLES AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TO PLACE PEOPLE IN RELAXING SITUATIONS.>>IN THE RELAXATION SCENE YOU MIGHT BE AT A BEACH, YOU MIGHT BE GOING THROUGH VOWEL EXERCISES TO REALLY COPE WITH YOUR ANXIETY AND SORT OF ALLEVIATE THE STRESS THAT YOU HAVE. AND THEN BASED ON HOW YOU’RE FEELING AT THE END OF THE EXERCISE, THE AI SORT OF DIRECTS YOU TO A SCENE WHERE YOU MIGHT HAVE PEOPLE IN THE ROOM LOOKING AT YOU, OR YOU MIGHT BE JUST GOING INTO AN EMPTY ROOM BASED ON HOW STRESSED OUT YOU ARE. >>WHILE VIRTUAL AND AUGMENTED REALITY SEEM LIKE INTERESTING WAYS TO BOLSTER A STUDENT’S LESSON PLAN, THEY’RE STILL RELATIVELY NEW EDUCATIONAL IDEAS AND HAVE A LONG WAY TO GO BEFORE MAKING THEIR WAY INTO EVERY CLASSROOM. FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE, I’M TINABETH PIÑA.>>THERE ARE LOTS OF TV SHOWS AND SPIN-OFFS ABOUT CSI, CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATIONS. THEY MAKE GOOD DRAMA, BUT HOW ACCURATE ARE THESE PROCEDURALS. HERE’S DONNA HANOVER BEHIND THE CRIME SCENE AT ONE OF NEW YORK CITY’S CRIME LAB TRAINING FACILITIES. >>WHEN A CRIME OCCURS, POLICE INVESTIGATE, PURSUE LEADS, AND GATHER EVIDENCE. SIFTING THROUGH THAT EVIDENCE INVOLVES MANY OF THE 600 EMPLOYEES OF THE NEW YORK CITY OFFICE OF THE CHIEF MEDICAL EXAMINER, THE OCME FOR SHORT. AND THIS IS WHERE THE FORENSIC SCIENTISTS OF THE OCME LEARN THEIR CRUCIAL WORK, A FULLY OPERATIONAL TRAINING LAB IN THE ME’S DOWNTOWN HEADQUARTERS. I MET WITH ONE OF THOSE FORENSIC SCIENTISTS, CHRISTINA ALIGIZAKIS IS A CRIMINALIST. WHAT IS A CRIMINALIST? WHAT DO YOU DO?>>I EXAMINE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE OR BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL TO DETERMINE THE SOURCE TO THE EXCLUSION OF OTHERS. >>WHY? WHAT IS THE GOAL?>>THE GOAL IS EITHER TO PUT THE PERSON AT THE CRIME SCENE OR TO SAY THEY WEREN’T AT THE CRIME SCENE.>>SO WHAT ARE WE LOOKING AT HERE? >>VARIOUS ITEMS THAT WE’LL GET AT THE LABORATORY AT ANY GIVEN TIME. SO WE’LL GET A CAN WITH A STRAW AND YOU WANT TO SEE IF SOMEBODY DRANK OUT OF THE STRAW. THE FRYING PAN COULD HAVE REDDISH BROWN STAINING. IS IT BLOOD? IS IT NOT BLOOD? I MEAN, DID THEY USE THIS TO ASSAULT SOMEBODY. >>WHAT A CRIMINALIST MUST LOOK FOR IS DNA, THE MOLECULAR SIGNATURE UNIQUE IN ALL OF US, WHICH CAN BE USED AS EVIDENCE TO CONVICT OR EXONERATE AN ACCUSED PERSON IN A COURT OF LAW. >>WE’VE GOTTEN A LOT OF INTERESTING STUFF HERE. >>THESE IMPLEMENTS AND PROPS HAVE REAL DNA ON THEM. THE TASK OF THE CRIMINALIST IS TO ISOLATE IT IN AN INTRICATE REGIMEN WITH LITTLE ROOM FOR ERROR.>>LET’S TAKE THE FRYING PAN.>>THE FIRST STEP IS TO DETERMINE IF DNA IS ACTUALLY PRESENT. GLOVES ARE A MUST, AND STERILE CONDITIONS ARE CRUCIAL THROUGHOUT THE PROCESS TO BOTH PRESERVE AND PROTECT THE SAMPLE. >>SO, I NOTICED SOME REDDISH BROWN STAINING, SO I WILL TAKE A SWAB. I’M HOPING TO FIND DNA. I’M HOPING TO FIND WHO TOUCHED THE HANDLE AND I’M HOPING TO FIGURE OUT WHOSE BLOOD THAT COULD BE. >>SO YOU’RE NOT LOOKING FOR FINGERPRINTS- >>NO. >>… LIKE IN THE OLD DAYS. >>NO. WE’RE STRICTLY DNA.>>THE SUSPECTED DNA SAMPLES ARE PLACED INTO SMALL TUBES, ONE LABELED FOR BLOOD, ANOTHER FOR SKIN CELLS. >>THE NEXT STEP IS EXTRACTION. SO WE WANT TO PUT DNA IN LIQUID FORM, BECAUSE IT’S EASIEST TO WORK WITH DNA THAT WAY. I’VE JUST ADDED ALL THE CHEMICALS AND REAGENTS THAT WE’RE GOING TO NEED FOR THE EXTRACTION PROCESS, AND I’M READY TO PUT THEM INTO THE INSTRUMENT. >>EXTRACTION TAKES ABOUT 20 MINUTES. >>IT’S NOW TIME TO TAKE OUT OUR SAMPLES. AND THEN WE WILL WANT TO QUANTIFY AND SEE HOW MUCH DNA IS PRESENT, AND SEE IF MAYBE THERE’S ONE PERSON THAT HANDLED IT OR MULTIPLE PEOPLE THAT HAVE HANDLED THAT HANDLE. >>FORENSIC SCIENCE IS A VITAL TOOL IN THE SEARCH FOR TRUTH. CRIMINALISTS HERE AT THE OCME HANDLE 8- TO 10,000 CASES A YEAR. HOW MANY CASES HAVE YOU BEEN INVOLVED IN? >>OVER THOUSANDS OF CASES.>>ARE THERE ONE OR TWO THAT REALLY COME TO MIND THAT YOU’RE PROUD OF YOUR WORK? >>YES. ONE CASE IN PARTICULAR. I DON’T KNOW IF YOU REMEMBER READING ABOUT … THERE WAS A GUY USING A TINDER APP TO LURE WOMEN. SO HE’D ASK THEM OUT ON A DATE AND THEN HE WOULD EITHER SEXUALLY ASSAULT THEM OR KILL THEM. SO I WAS PART OF THAT INVESTIGATION. >>THE SUSPECT DIDN’T STAND A CHANCE. HE WAS DONE IN BY HIS DNA. SO YOU HELPED TAKE THIS GUY AND MAKE SURE HE GOT CONVICTED?>>YES. I WAS A BIG PART OF THAT. AND IT, IT WAS, IT WAS NICE. IT WAS A NICE FEELING, BECAUSE SOMETIMES WE DON’T KNOW. WE AREN’T ABLE TO SEE THE FINAL PRODUCT, AND IN THIS PARTICULAR CASE, I WAS. >>SO THE CRIMINALISTS HERE AT THE LARGEST MEDICAL EXAMINER’S OFFICE IN THE COUNTRY DO VERY SIGNIFICANT WORK SOLVING CRIMES AND HELPING TO KEEP ALL OF US SAFE. I’M DONNA HANOVER FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE.>>YOU KNOW, THERE ARE LOTS OF DOGS IN NEW YORK CITY, MOST OF THEM BARKING UNDER MY WINDOW AT 3 A.M. AND WHILE WALKING YOUR DOG EVERY DAY KEEPS THEM PHYSICALLY FIT, HAVE YOU CONSIDERED YOUR DOGS MENTAL FITNESS? WELL, YOU MAY WANT TO TAKE THEM TO SEE A NEW PROGRAM OVER AT HUNTER COLLEGE. HERE’S ANDREW FALZON. THIS IS THE WORST SPIN CLASS I’VE EVER BEEN TO. [DOGS BARKING]>>MEET PENNY, A ONE-YEAR-OLD PITBULL MIX WHO USUALLY GETS THE BETTER OF HER CHEW TOYS. PENNY’S OWNER, PATRICIA, WAS LOOKING FOR SOMETHING NEW AND FUN TO DO WITH HER AND CAME ACROSS THE THINKING DOG CENTER AT HUNTER COLLEGE. DR. SARAH-ELIZABETH BIOSYERES IS THE DIRECTOR. >>DOG OWNERS FROM THE COMMUNITY FROM ALL OVER NEW YORK, ALL OF THE BOROUGHS, ARE BRINGING THEIR DOGS IN TO COME AND PARTICIPATE IN PROBLEM SOLVING AND TRAINING EXERCISES THAT WE CONDUCT HERE AT THE CENTER. THEY COME IN FOR VERY SHORT VISITS, USUALLY ABOUT AN HOUR.>>THE CENTER IS OPEN TO ALL TYPES OF DOGS, SO LONG AS THEY’RE PEOPLE FRIENDLY LIKE THIS LITTLE LOVE SPONGE NAMED ROBOT, A TWO-YEAR-OLD CHIHUAHUA MIX. ALL THAT’S REQUIRED IS A VACCINATION REPORT. THE BEST WAY TO CONTACT THE CENTER IS THROUGH ONE OF THEIR SOCIAL MEDIA CHANNELS WHICH YOU CAN FIND BY GOOGLING HUNTER THINKING DOG CENTER. THE MOST IMPORTANT THING TO UNDERSTAND IS THAT THE CENTER IS NOT OFFERING DOG TRAINING BUT IS ENGAGED IN ACADEMIC CANINE RESEARCH.>>WE’RE TRYING TO LEARN WHAT DOGS KNOW ABOUT THE WORLD AROUND THEM. ANYTHING FROM HOW DO DOG VISUALLY SEE THEIR ENVIRONMENT TO HOW ARE THEY SNIFFING IN THEIR ENVIRONMENT TO WHAT COGNITIVE MECHANISMS ARE SIMILAR BETWEEN DOGS AND HUMANS, BUT ALSO WITH OTHER SPECIES AS WELL. SO WE’RE REALLY TRYING TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THE WORLD LOOKS LIKE FROM A DOG’S POINT OF VIEW. THIS IS A STUDY WHERE WE’RE LOOKING AT WHETHER OR NOT DOGS LIKE HUMANS FALL SUSCEPTIBLE TO CERTAIN VISUAL ILLUSIONS, AND WE CALL THIS OUR BOLOGNA STUDY, BECAUSE THIS INVOKES USING PIECES OF BOLOGNA THAT ARE EMBEDDED INTO ILLUSORY STIMULI AND THE DOGS ABSOLUTELY LOVE IT AND TRY TO DESTROY OUR APPARATUS JUST TO OBTAIN THE BOLOGNA. >>THERE ARE ALWAYS DIFFERENT PROJECTS AND STUDIES GOING ON AT THE CENTER, SOME AS SHORT AS ONE SINGLE HOUR VISIT, AND OTHER PROJECTS RUN AS LONG AS SEVEN WEEKS, WHICH ROBOT COMPLETED WITH FLYING COLORS. THE STUDENT RESEARCHERS CULL THROUGH THE ONLINE QUESTIONNAIRES THAT PROSPECTIVE PARTICIPANTS FILL OUT TO MATCH THE RIGHT DOG WITH THE RIGHT STUDY. >>WE WANT THE DOGS HERE TO HAVE A REALLY GOOD TIME, AND SO IT DOESN’T REALLY MATTER HOW THEY PERFORM AS LONG AS THEY HAVE FUN. >>SO IF YOU WANT TO SEE HOW SMART YOUR FURRY FRIEND IS OR JUST GET THEM OUT OF THE HOUSE FOR SOME FUN, PERHAPS THE THINKING DOG CENTER AT HUNTER COLLEGE IS FOR YOU. I’M ANDREW FALZON AND THIS IS ROBOT FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE.>>MY EXPERIENCE WITH ORIGAMI GOES AS FAR AS MAKING PAPER AIRPLANES. BUT HERE AT THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MATHEMATICS THERE’S AN ORIGAMI EXHIBIT THAT CONSIDERS THE INTERSECTION OF ART AND SCIENCE. I’D LIKE YOU TO SAY HELLO TO MY FRIEND WIN WIN, SHE’S AN ORIGAMI EXPERT. WHAT’S THE MOST IMPORTANT THING TO KNOW ABOUT ORIGAMI? >>YOU’VE GOT TO KNOW WHEN TO HOLD AND KNOW WHEN TO FOLD THEM. >>WE’RE GOING TO CHANGE OUR CLOTHES AND COME RIGHT BACK. ♪ [MELODIC MUSIC] ♪>>IT’S JUST HERE’S A PIECE OF PAPER AND HOW CREATIVE CAN YOU GET AT FOLDING IT INTO EXOTIC SHAPES.>>WHY WOULD WE FIND ART IN A MUSEUM DEDICATED TO MATHEMATICS? >>THERE’S A LOT OF MATH THAT UNDERLIES PAPER FOLDING, AND MORE SO IN RECENT YEARS AS MATHEMATICIANS HAVE ACTUALLY USED ALGORITHMS OR PROGRAMS TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO FOLD ALL SORTS OF SHAPES THAT THEY DIDN’T KNOW THEY COULD FOLD. SO MATH UNDERLIES THE GEOMETRY OF WHAT WE’RE DOING WITH PAPER FOLDING. AS YOU CAN SEE IN THE EXHIBIT HERE, THERE ARE MANY EXAMPLES OF WORK THAT YOU WOULD BE HAPPY TO HANG ON YOUR WALL AS A PIECE OF ART.>>ORIGAMI IS THE ANCIENT JAPANESE ART OF PAPER FOLDING. TRADITIONALLY DESIGNED BY HAND, NOW, MATH AND SCIENCE ARE PLAYING A ROLE IN DESIGNING AND CREATING ORIGAMI.>>I USE A LOT OF MATHEMATICS TO CALCULATE THE FOLDING ANGLES SO THAT IT FOLDS INTO THE SHAPES THAT I WANT IT TO. >>WIN WIN IS A FASHION DESIGNER WITH A MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BACKGROUND. SHE’S KNOWN FOR HER ORIGAMI INSPIRED CREATIONS.>>MOST OF THE TIME I START WITH MY COMPUTER ACTUALLY. AND I DESIGN CREASE PATTERNS ON MY COMPUTER. I THINK THAT THERE IS A LOT OF SCIENCE THAT CAN BE FOUND IN THE ARTS. THIS SKIRT FOR EXAMPLE UTILIZES THE FIBONACCI SEQUENCE. >>WHAT IS THAT? >>IT’S A SEQUENCE OF NUMBERS WHERE YOU TAKE THE FIRST TWO NUMBERS AND ADD THEM TO GET THE NEXT NUMBER. SO, ONE AND ONE MAKE TWO, ONE AND TWO MAKE THREE, TWO AND THREE MAKE FIVE, ONE, ONE, TWO, THREE, FIVE, EIGHT, 13, ET CETERA. THIS IS MY STEM AND LEAF SKIRTS AND MATCHING SHIRTS. IT STARTS WITH AN ARRAY OF 32 RADIALLY SYMMETRIC FOLDS, AND THOSE GET FOLDED IN ALTERNATING DIRECTIONS. I WOULDN’T CONSIDER THESE TO BE VERY WEARABLE AS THEY ARE, BUT I THINK THEY’RE A LOT OF FUN. BUT I’M WORKING TOWARDS MAKING WEARABLE, PRODUCIBLE VERSIONS.>>SO ORIGAMI IS AESTHETICALLY PLEASING, BUT WHAT OTHER USES DOES IT HAVE? >>FOLDING IT TURNS OUT HAS TONS OF APPLICATIONS TO THE REAL WORLD FOR MEDICINE, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY. FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU WANT TO PUT IN A STENT, YOU HAVE TO WIND THIS UP THROUGH AN ARTERY UNTIL YOU GET TO THE PLACE WHERE THE BLOCKAGE IS AND YOU WANT TO OPEN, OPEN SOMETHING UP. THAT’S A TYPICAL INSTANCE OF FOLDING. IF A LADY BUG LANDS ON YOUR SHOULDER AND YOU BLOW ON IT, IT CAN FLY, BUT IT DOESN’T LOOK LIKE IT CAN FLY. IT’S THIS COMPACT LITTLE THING THAT HAS THESE TWO DELOREAN WINGS THAT, YOU KNOW, THE SHELL OPENS UP AND THEN THESE WINGS UNFOLD. THAT’S ORIGAMI RIGHT THERE. WE’RE TALKING TO NASA ABOUT VARIOUS WAYS OF HOW DO YOU FOLD A SPACE CRAFT IN THE MOST EFFICIENT WAY. IT NEEDS TO FOLD UP INTO A TINY LITTLE, YOU KNOW, FLAT REGION OR, OR A BALL THAT CAN FIT AT THE TOP OF A ROCKET SHIP. >>AND THEN BLOOM. >>AND THEN BLOOM. EXACTLY. AND EXACTLY AS YOU SAID BLOOM, WHAT HAPPENS TO A FLOWER WHEN IT SEES THE SUNLIGHT. HOW DOES IT ACTUALLY POSITION ITSELF TOWARDS THE SUN TO MAXIMIZE THE AMOUNT OF SUN RAYS THAT IT’S RECEIVING. SO NATURE DOES ORIGAMI ALL THE TIME. >>ALEX, THANKS SO MUCH. AND IN MATH PARLANCE, GIVE ME FIVE. >>(LAUGHS) MY PLEASURE. >>WE ALL KNOW EXERCISE IS GOOD FOR US. RIGHT? BUT DOES IT MATTER WHAT TIME OF DAY YOU EXERCISE? CAROL ANNE RIDDELL HAS SOME ANSWERS. ♪ [UPBEAT MUSIC] ♪>>ARE YOU UP WITH THE SUN HITTING THE GYM BEFORE YOUR DAY STARTS, OR IS AN EVENING RUN MORE YOUR THING, AND DOES IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE? WE WANTED TO KNOW IF ONE TIME OF DAY IS BETTER THAN ANOTHER WHEN IT COMES TO MAXIMIZING A WORKOUT, SO WE HEADED TO LEHMAN COLLEGE IN THE BRONX FOR A LESSON IN EXERCISE SCIENCE. >>THIS IS OUR HUMAN PERFORMANCE LAB. WE DO TESTING AND WE DO SOME EXERCISE TRAINING AS WELL HERE, SO IT’S A COMBINATION OF BASICALLY, HUMAN PERFORMANCE LAB. WE DO CARDIOVASCULAR TESTING, BODY COMP TESTING, BODY COMPOSITION, WE DO STRENGTH TESTING, POWER. >>IF YOU’RE WONDERING WHAT ALL THAT MEANS, HERE’S A QUICK DEMONSTRATION. ASSISTANT PROFESSOR BRAD SCHOENFELD IS THE DIRECTOR OF THE HUMAN PERFORMANCE LAB. HE’S ALSO A FITNESS EXPERT AND THE AUTHOR OF MULTIPLE BOOKS ON THE TOPIC, SO WE ASKED US TO TEAM UP WITH OUR INTERN GENNESSY PALMA, WHO VOLUNTEERED TO TRY THE BODY COMP TEST. >>IT ACTUALLY CAN GIVE US THE AMOUNT OF LEAN MASS IN HER ARMS TRUNK, IN HER LEGS. SO, THIS IS WHAT YOU GET, AND YOU SEE ALL THESE MEASUREMENTS THAT IT GIVES YOU, AND OF COURSE YOU MIGHT GO ON A RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAM TO GAIN MUSCLE. >>RIGHT. I FEEL LIKE THIS IS GOOD IN TERMS OF LIKE TO SEE THAT’S EXACTLY I NEED TO WORK ON AND WHAT I DON’T REALLY NEED TO WORK ON. SO THIS IS REALLY GREAT INPUT FOR ME AS A WHOLE.>>CLEARLY, SCIENCE CAN OFFER A LOT OF SPECIFICS ABOUT WHAT EXERCISE DOES AND HOW IT CHANGES OUR BODIES, BUT THE WHEN QUESTION SEEMS LESS DEFINITIVE. SOME RESEARCH SUGGESTS WE ARE STRONGER IN THE EVENINGS, BUT OTHERS POINT TO INCREASED FAT OXIDATION WHEN WE WORK OUT BEFORE BREAKFAST. SCHOENFELD SAYS TO SOME DEGREE ALL OF THIS SORT OF MISSES THE POINT. >>PEOPLE TEND TO FOCUS ON THE MINUTIA, BUT IT REALLY IS THE OVERALL BIG PICTURE AND ADHERENCE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IN ANY EXERCISE PROGRAM. IF YOU DON’T LIKE TO TRAIN IN THE MORNING AND YOU KEEP TRAINING IN THE MORNING, YOU’RE NOT GOING TO LIKE IT AND YOU’RE PROBABLY GOING TO STOP. >>THOUGH YOU MAY WANT TO CHECK WITH YOUR DOCTOR BEFORE STARTING AN EXERCISE PROGRAM, KNOWING HOW MUCH YOU SHOULD BE GETTING IS HELPFUL, AND IT MIGHT SURPRISE YOU. TAKE A LOOK AT THESE GUIDELINES. WHEN IT COMES TO HEALTH BENEFITS, ADULTS NEED AT LEAST 150 TO 300 MINUTES OF MODERATE INTENSITY AEROBIC ACTIVITY LIKE BRISK WALKING EACH WEEK, OR 75 TO 150 MINUTES OF VIGOROUS INTENSITY AEROBIC ACTIVITY, FOR EXAMPLE RUNNING. ALSO, IT’S RECOMMENDED ADULTS DO MUSCLE STRENGTHENING ACTIVITY LIKE LIFTING WEIGHTS OR PUSHUPS AT LEAST TWO DAYS A WEEK. IT ADDS UP. AND WHILE ANY TIME OF DAY WORKS, EARLY RATHER THAN LATE MIGHT HELP YOU STICK WITH YOUR PLAN IF YOU’RE ANYTHING LIKE ME, AND IT TURNS OUT GENNESSY TOO. IF I DON’T WORK OUT IN THE MORNING, THERE’S AN INCREASING CHANCE I’M NOT GOING TO WORK OUT AT ALL THAT DAY IF I DON’T GET IT DONE EARLY. ARE YOU LIKE THAT?>>DEFINITELY. YES. I – THE EARLIER IT IS, THE BETTER IT IS FOR ME. >>THE BOTTOM LINE IS NOT A BIG SURPRISE. GETTING REGULAR EXERCISE IS WHAT REALLY MATTERS WHETHER YOU’RE DOING THAT MORNING, NOON, OR NIGHT. I’M CAROL ANNE RIDDELL FOR SIMPLY SCIENCE.>>WE MOVED OUTSIDE SO I CAN SHOW OFF MY NEWEST ORIGAMI CREATION, TA-DA. PAPER AIRPLANE. THAT’S OUR SHOW FOR TODAY. OUR THANKS TO THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MATHEMATICS, AND AS ALWAYS YOU CAN REACH US AT TV.CUNY.EDU AND FACEBOOK AND YOUTUBE. I’M BARRY MITCHELL. SEE YOU NEXT TIME ON SIMPLY SCIENCE. OH! ♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪

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