Cultural ecology | Wikipedia audio article
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Cultural ecology | Wikipedia audio article


Cultural ecology is the study of human adaptations
to social and physical environments. Human adaptation refers to both biological and cultural
processes that enable a population to survive and reproduce within a given or changing environment.
This may be carried out diachronically (examining entities that existed in different epochs),
or synchronically (examining a present system and its components). The central argument
is that the natural environment, in small scale or subsistence societies dependent in
part upon it, is a major contributor to social organization and other human institutions.
In the academic realm, when combined with study of political economy, the study of economies
as polities, it becomes political ecology, another academic subfield. It also helps interrogate
historical events like the Easter Island Syndrome.==History==
Anthropologist Julian Steward (1902-1972) coined the term, envisioning cultural ecology
as a methodology for understanding how humans adapt to such a wide variety of environments.
In his Theory of Culture Change: The Methodology of Multilinear Evolution (1955), cultural
ecology represents the “ways in which culture change is induced by adaptation to the environment.”
A key point is that any particular human adaptation is in part historically inherited and involves
the technologies, practices, and knowledge that allow people to live in an environment.
This means that while the environment influences the character of human adaptation, it does
not determine it. In this way, Steward wisely separated the vagaries of the environment
from the inner workings of a culture that occupied a given environment. Viewed over
the long term, this means that environment and culture are on more or less separate evolutionary
tracks and that the ability of one to influence the other is dependent on how each is structured.
It is this assertion – that the physical and biological environment affects culture – that
has proved controversial, because it implies an element of environmental determinism over
human actions, which some social scientists find problematic, particularly those writing
from a Marxist perspective. Cultural ecology recognizes that ecological locale plays a
significant role in shaping the cultures of a region.
Steward’s method was to: Document the technologies and methods used
to exploit the environment to get a living from it.
Look at patterns of human behavior/culture associated with using the environment.
Assess how much these patterns of behavior influenced other aspects of culture (e.g.,
how, in a drought-prone region, great concern over rainfall patterns meant this became central
to everyday life, and led to the development of a religious belief system in which rainfall
and water figured very strongly. This belief system may not appear in a society where good
rainfall for crops can be taken for granted, or where irrigation was practiced).Steward’s
concept of cultural ecology became widespread among anthropologists and archaeologists of
the mid-20th century, though they would later be critiqued for their environmental determinism.
Cultural ecology was one of the central tenets and driving factors in the development of
processual archaeology in the 1960s, as archaeologists understood cultural change through the framework
of technology and its effects on environmental adaptation.==In anthropology==
Cultural ecology as developed by Steward is a major subdiscipline of anthropology. It
derives from the work of Franz Boas and has branched out to cover a number of aspects
of human society, in particular the distribution of wealth and power in a society, and how
that affects such behaviour as hoarding or gifting (e.g. the tradition of the potlatch
on the Northwest North American coast).==As transdisciplinary project==
One 2000s-era conception of cultural ecology is as a general theory that regards ecology
as a paradigm not only for the natural and human sciences, but for cultural studies as
well. In his Die Ökologie des Wissens (The Ecology of Knowledge), Peter Finke explains
that this theory brings together the various cultures of knowledge that have evolved in
history, and that have been separated into more and more specialized disciplines and
subdisciplines in the evolution of modern science (Finke 2005). In this view, cultural
ecology considers the sphere of human culture not as separate from but as interdependent
with and transfused by ecological processes and natural energy cycles. At the same time,
it recognizes the relative independence and self-reflexive dynamics of cultural processes.
As the dependency of culture on nature, and the ineradicable presence of nature in culture,
are gaining interdisciplinary attention, the difference between cultural evolution and
natural evolution is increasingly acknowledged by cultural ecologists. Rather than genetic
laws, information and communication have become major driving forces of cultural evolution
(see Finke 2006, 2007). Thus, causal deterministic laws do not apply to culture in a strict sense,
but there are nevertheless productive analogies that can be drawn between ecological and cultural
processes. Gregory Bateson was the first to draw such
analogies in his project of an Ecology of Mind (Bateson 1973), which was based on general
principles of complex dynamic life processes, e.g. the concept of feedback loops, which
he saw as operating both between the mind and the world and within the mind itself.
Bateson thinks of the mind neither as an autonomous metaphysical force nor as a mere neurological
function of the brain, but as a “dehierarchized concept of a mutual dependency between the
(human) organism and its (natural) environment, subject and object, culture and nature”, and
thus as “a synonym for a cybernetic system of information circuits that are relevant
for the survival of the species.” (Gersdorf/ Mayer 2005: 9).
Finke fuses these ideas with concepts from systems theory. He describes the various sections
and subsystems of society as ‘cultural ecosystems’ with their own processes of production, consumption,
and reduction of energy (physical as well as psychic energy). This also applies to the
cultural ecosystems of art and of literature, which follow their own internal forces of
selection and self-renewal, but also have an important function within the cultural
system as a whole (see next section).==In literary studies==
The interrelatedness between culture and nature has been a special focus of literary culture
from its archaic beginnings in myth, ritual, and oral story-telling, in legends and fairy
tales, in the genres of pastoral literature, nature poetry. Important texts in this tradition
include the stories of mutual transformations between human and nonhuman life, most famously
collected in Ovid’s Metamorphoses, which became a highly influential text throughout
literary history and across different cultures. This attention to culture-nature interaction
became especially prominent in the era of romanticism, but continues to be characteristic
of literary stagings of human experience up to the present.
The mutual opening and symbolic reconnection of culture and nature, mind and body, human
and nonhuman life in a holistic and yet radically pluralistic way seems to be one significant
mode in which literature functions and in which literary knowledge is produced. From
this perspective, literature can itself be described as the symbolic medium of a particularly
powerful form of “cultural ecology” (Zapf 2002). Literary texts have staged and explored,
in ever new scenarios, the complex feedback relationship of prevailing cultural systems
with the needs and manifestations of human and nonhuman “nature.” From this paradoxical
act of creative regression they have derived their specific power of innovation and cultural
self-renewal. German ecocritic Hubert Zapf argues that literature
draws its cognitive and creative potential from a threefold dynamics in its relationship
to the larger cultural system: as a “cultural-critical metadiscourse,” an “imaginative counterdiscourse,”
and a “reintegrative interdiscourse” (Zapf 2001, 2002). It is a textual form which breaks
up ossified social structures and ideologies, symbolically empowers the marginalized, and
reconnects what is culturally separated. In that way, literature counteracts economic,
political or pragmatic forms of interpreting and instrumentalizing human life, and breaks
up one-dimensional views of the world and the self, opening them up towards their repressed
or excluded other. Literature is thus, on the one hand, a sensorium for what goes wrong
in a society, for the biophobic, life-paralyzing implications of one-sided forms of consciousness
and civilizational uniformity, and it is, on the other hand, a medium of constant cultural
self-renewal, in which the neglected biophilic energies can find a symbolic space of expression
and of (re-)integration into the larger ecology of cultural discourses. This approach has
been applied and widened in volumes of essays by scholars from over the world (ed. Zapf
2008, 2016), as well as in a recent monograph (Zapf 2016).==In geography==
In geography, cultural ecology developed in response to the “landscape morphology” approach
of Carl O. Sauer. Sauer’s school was criticized for being unscientific and later for holding
a “reified” or “superorganic” conception of culture. Cultural ecology applied ideas from
ecology and systems theory to understand the adaptation of humans to their environment.
These cultural ecologists focused on flows of energy and materials, examining how beliefs
and institutions in a culture regulated its interchanges with the natural ecology that
surrounded it. In this perspective humans were as much a part of the ecology as any
other organism. Important practitioners of this form of cultural ecology include Karl
Butzer and David Stoddart. The second form of cultural ecology introduced
decision theory from agricultural economics, particularly inspired by the works of Alexander
Chayanov and Ester Boserup. These cultural ecologists were concerned with how human groups
made decisions about how they use their natural environment. They were particularly concerned
with the question of agricultural intensification, refining the competing models of Thomas Malthus
and Boserup. Notable cultural ecologists in this second tradition include Harold Brookfield
and Billie Lee Turner II. Starting in the 1980s, cultural ecology came under criticism
from political ecology. Political ecologists charged that cultural ecology ignored the
connections between the local-scale systems they studied and the global political economy.
Today few geographers self-identify as cultural ecologists, but ideas from cultural ecology
have been adopted and built on by political ecology, land change science, and sustainability
science.==Conceptual views=====
Human species===Books about culture and ecology began to emerge
in the 1950s and 1960s. One of the first to be published in the United Kingdom was The
Human Species by a zoologist, Anthony Barnett. It came out in 1950-subtitled The biology
of man but was about a much narrower subset of topics. It dealt with the cultural bearing
of some outstanding areas of environmental knowledge about health and disease, food,
the sizes and quality of human populations, and the diversity of human types and their
abilities. Barnett’s view was that his selected areas of information “….are all topics on
which knowledge is not only desirable, but for a twentieth-century adult, necessary”.
He went on to point out some of the concepts underpinning human ecology towards the social
problems facing his readers in the 1950s as well as the assertion that human nature cannot
change, what this statement could mean, and whether it is true. The third chapter deals
in more detail with some aspects of human genetics.
Then come five chapters on the evolution of man, and the differences between groups of
men (or races) and between individual men and women today in relation to population
growth (the topic of ‘human diversity’). Finally, there is a series of chapters on various aspects
of human populations (the topic of “life and death”). Like other animals man must, in order
to survive, overcome the dangers of starvation and infection; at the same time he must be
fertile. Four chapters therefore deal with food, disease and the growth and decline of
human populations. Barnett anticipated that his personal scheme
might be criticised on the grounds that it omits an account of those human characteristics,
which distinguish humankind most clearly, and sharply from other animals. That is to
say, the point might be expressed by saying that human behaviour is ignored; or some might
say that human psychology is left out, or that no account is taken of the human mind.
He justified his limited view, not because little importance was attached to what was
left out, but because the omitted topics were so important that each needed a book of similar
size even for a summary account. In other words, the author was embedded in a world
of academic specialists and therefore somewhat worried about taking a partial conceptual,
and idiosyncratic view of the zoology of Homo sapiens.===Ecology===
Moves to produce prescriptions for adjusting human culture to ecological realities were
also afoot in North America. Paul Sears, in his 1957 Condon Lecture at the University
of Oregon, titled “The Ecology of Man,” he mandated “serious attention to the ecology
of man” and demanded “its skillful application to human affairs.” Sears was one of the few
prominent ecologists to successfully write for popular audiences. Sears documents the
mistakes American farmers made in creating conditions that led to the disastrous Dust
Bowl. This book gave momentum to the soil conservation movement in the United States.===Impact on nature===
During this same time was J.A. Lauwery’s Man’s Impact on Nature, which was part of a series
on ‘Interdependence in Nature’ published in 1969. Both Russel’s and Lauwerys’ books were
about cultural ecology, although not titled as such. People still had difficulty in escaping
from their labels. Even Beginnings and Blunders, produced in 1970 by the polymath zoologist
Lancelot Hogben, with the subtitle Before Science Began, clung to anthropology as a
traditional reference point. However, its slant makes it clear that ‘cultural ecology’
would be a more apt title to cover his wide-ranging description of how early societies adapted
to environment with tools, technologies and social groupings. In 1973 the physicist Jacob
Bronowski produced The Ascent of Man, which summarised a magnificent thirteen part BBC
television series about all the ways in which humans have moulded the Earth and its future.===Changing the Earth===
By the 1980s the human ecological-functional view had prevailed. It had become a conventional
way to present scientific concepts in the ecological perspective of human animals dominating
an overpopulated world, with the practical aim of producing a greener culture. This is
exemplified by I. G. Simmons’ book Changing the Face of the Earth, with its telling subtitle
“Culture, Environment History” which was published in 1989. Simmons was a geographer, and his
book was a tribute to the influence of W.L Thomas’ edited collection, Man’s role in ‘Changing
the Face of the Earth that came out in 1956. Simmons’ book was one of many interdisciplinary
culture/environment publications of the 1970s and 1980s, which triggered a crisis in geography
with regards its subject matter, academic sub-divisions, and boundaries. This was resolved
by officially adopting conceptual frameworks as an approach to facilitate the organisation
of research and teaching that cuts cross old subject divisions. Cultural ecology is in
fact a conceptual arena that has, over the past six decades allowed sociologists, physicists,
zoologists and geographers to enter common intellectual ground from the sidelines of
their specialist subjects.===21st Century===
In the first decade of the 21st century, there are publications dealing with the ways in
which humans can develop a more acceptable cultural relationship with the environment.
An example is sacred ecology, a sub-topic of cultural ecology, produced by Fikret Berkes
in 1999. It seeks lessons from traditional ways of life in Northern Canada to shape a
new environmental perception for urban dwellers. This particular conceptualisation of people
and environment comes from various cultural levels of local knowledge about species and
place, resource management systems using local experience, social institutions with their
rules and codes of behaviour, and a world view through religion, ethics and broadly
defined belief systems. Despite the differences in information concepts,
all of the publications carry the message that culture is a balancing act between the
mindset devoted to the exploitation of natural resources and that, which conserves them.
Perhaps the best model of cultural ecology in this context is, paradoxically, the mismatch
of culture and ecology that have occurred when Europeans suppressed the age-old native
methods of land use and have tried to settle European farming cultures on soils manifestly
incapable of supporting them. There is a sacred ecology associated with environmental awareness,
and the task of cultural ecology is to inspire urban dwellers to develop a more acceptable
sustainable cultural relationship with the environment that supports them.===Educational framework=====See also==
Cultural materialism Dual inheritance theory
Ecological anthropology Environmental history
Environmental racism Human behavioral ecology
Political ecology

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