Ecology Notes - Organisms & Their Relationships

Ecology Notes – Organisms & Their Relationships

all right so this first video is going to be on organisms and their relationships so a lot of this will hopefully be pretty review for you and it's really packed with some vocab so make sure as you go through this you're writing down the terms and the definitions so first of all ecology what is ecology this is a good vocab word to start with so it's the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment so organisms are the living parts there's nonliving parts of the environment but there's also living parts of the environment so if we start with the largest portion we start with the biosphere so this is a thin layer around the earth it extends above the Earth's surface and then below the ocean surface by extending above the Earth's surface it's kind of like our atmosphere like the area that we can exist in without being in a spaceship is part of the biosphere so biotic versus abiotic these are two important things so biotic factors are your living factors ok these are things like plants and animals abiotic factors are your non living sunlight temperature rainfall all of these things are abiotic factors so a lot of times you're going to hear it talking about an abiotic vs. a biotic and what plays a larger role or what's involved in an organisms relationship and in most cases it's both things that are involved so the levels of organization so this is going from smallest here to largest here ok so the smallest thing is an organism so that's the smallest we have an organism then a group of the same organisms as a population and then a community is different populations an ecosystem has different communities and then a biome as many different ecosystems or I should say like ecosystems and then the biosphere is basically the entire planet so let's look at these terms so like we just said an organism is an individual and right here these are all vocab words these are all terms you definitely need to be familiar with so a population is organisms of the same species the same species so it's a population of deer a population of penguins it's not different breeds of penguins or different types of deer it's just a single species next we have a community which is a group of interacting populations that share the same area it's really important to notice that so in a forest you have a forest community you have a rabbit population you have a tree population you have a deer population you have I don't know a wolf population so these are all your interacting populations they all rely on each other to survive and they make up that community the next thing then is an ecosystem so this is a community and really really really important abiotic factors so it's this part here so all those different populations and the abiotic factors so your ecosystem or let's go back to that same forest example would also include the amount of sunlight in the forest the temperature of the forest whether there's a stream running through the forest that's all abiotic factors of that ecosystem and then biomes which you've spent some time on already our ecosystems with the same climate so climate is like your temperature your rainfall just kind of your overall environment so a biome isn't going to be a desert ecosystem in a Tundra ecosystem it's going to be different Tundra ecosystems which make up all that entire biome a couple other words in these words I have them separate because it's really important that you know the difference so the first thing is the habitat this is where an organism lives so your habitat could be as small as your neighborhood it could the state of Georgia it could be the United States but that's your habitat your area the niche then is the role you have in your environment so in your environment as a human you are a consumer okay you eat meat you eat vegetables you consume other things but the niche that something else might have so let's say we'll go back to the forest again if we get rid of the rabbit population that the role of that organism changes but it also changes the role of all the other organisms so the wolves or the different animals that used to prey on the rabbits now have to prey on different things and then the rabbits used to consume some of the vegetation so now that might grow more because there's not rabbits to control that population so the niche is a little more affected if you remove an organism than a habitat would be but they're both equally important and then next is the different interactions so you have competition versus predation these are also on the same page because I want you to know the difference and notice how it's community interaction so this is going to be two living organisms so competition is when you're competing for resources or you use the same resource as something else so think about I don't know a food source or a water source something's going to compete over this water source if you think about like the watering holes in Africa when it gets really dry and there's only a limited amount of watering holes all those organisms are competing for that access to fresh water and your other one is you have predation so predation is simple when one species gets its food from eating another so the shark eats the fish something really simple I'm pretty sure you guys are probably fine with a predator prey example the last thing is a symbiotic relationship so really important symbiosis or up here the symbiotic is a relationship in general so this is the general definition and these three are specific examples so make sure you don't confuse that so mutualism commensalism and parasitism are all examples of symbiosis okay so mutualism is when both species benefit so that's something like the easiest way to represent it is to smiley faces they both benefit from it and we'll talk about lots more examples of this in class but something for example there are certain birds that ride around on the backs of like wild cattle so these birds eat the ticks and stuff off of the cattle which benefits the cattle but then the birds also get food so that's a mutualistic relationship the next you have is commensalism so this is where one benefits and one is kind of neutral sorry about the smiley faces one's kind of neutral so in this situation it's like there's certain fish that kind of follow around sharks and they just kind of get the food scraps from the Sharks meal so the shark isn't harmed or helped by the fish but the fish gets kind of a free meal and then the last is parasitism so this is when one benefits and one is not benefited so this is like a flea on your dog so the flea is getting food the blood from your dog but your dog is not benefited at all your dog is actually harmed in some cases dogs or even allergic or they can have severe reactions to a flea and that's all for organisms and their environment

4 thoughts on “Ecology Notes – Organisms & Their Relationships

  1. Randomly came across this and I was struggling in class and I learned more here then I did in 3 weeks of class .. thank you

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