Genetics and Genetic Engineering
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Genetics and Genetic Engineering



hi guys great twelves finally it is your turn it is grade 12 learn extra live life science we are carrying on from last week and genetics and genetic engineering which is so interesting and SM is with us and I can't wait how are you sir um all the more battle seeing you and listening to Berlin on the other side I know I know this is terrible I guess I guess I feel so left out when I don't get to go on the show and especially now I mean I miss it with Lou and now I'm one with you as them but guys let us know how you found so cause are our top ten present one of our top ten presenters it was his first show ever grade 11 and I think he did fantastic big up to McMillan for sponsoring the show all of our content comes from this awesome life sciences for all McMillan textbook so now if you don't know about random acts of kindness guys I'm going to tell you quickly what it's about and let you know that we are announcing the winner in this show for our third week of the random acts of kindness what you need to do is you need to go to our veins page pay it forward post your random acts of kindness I'm the veins war so whether it's a picture whether it's a video or whether it's just you telling us what you've done to make a difference in someone's life you could win this awesome Simba hamper thanks so much for sponsoring this Cheetos and as long as you they promise to share with me too and also mine said t-shirts a Cheetos little notebook a lanyard as well as five CDs guys that's five CDs so get posting you still have a chance for your name to go into a little box of tricks and who knows we might be calling your name arts so I think ask them let's get the show on the road this is going to be a super super fun show post your pictures or well pictures your questions on facebook.com forward slash learn extra and you can chat to me on Twitter at learn extra I think I slam after all of that I'm sorry to take so much time from your show let's let's get the show rocket Thank You indie maggini yeah let's move on welcome mine setters we went through a whole lot of stuff last week regarding genetics we started with the basics guys and I told you last week already that you need to know those basics before we move forward whatever we do thereafter is based on what we spoke about genotype phenotype homozygous heterozygous those Turman those terms are absolutely crucial for whatever else we're going to do now what are we going to do today today we're going to look at how sex is inherited now I see those eyes raising don't get too excited when we discuss that you'll understand why I say that we also want to know inheritance of emo failure and color blindness as sex-linked characteristics more about that later we also want to know how would we interpret pedigree diagrams further we look at the importance of genetic engineering big word but in today's time with the amount of programs you're watching on TV the CSI is the medical detectives all of those shows NCIS law in order genetic engineering forms the key to most of the solutions of the crimes and we spoke about this when we spoke about DNA as well so we're going to go a little bit further into that but a little away from the crime scene more into how genetic engineering helps in medicine production of medicine like insulin or vaccines also how genetic engineering can help in agriculture and in agriculture we even looked at when we did meiosis we looked at poly poly ploidy as how that assists in agriculture now we can look at other avenues of genetic engineering in that field and just to mention a few pest resistant drought resistant improved quality improved quantity of crop a larger or a longer shelf life etc then while we're talking about that we want to talk about the SE and the legislation around these things around what genetic testing genetic counseling genetic engineering we're also going to touch on selective breeding and we got to understand today when we leave here today when you switch that telly off or when you change the channel not now obviously you must know the difference between selective breeding and genetic engineering also look at cloning and finally we look at the beliefs attitudes and values concerning genetic diseases that's quite a bit of work to do in one session nonetheless we're going to go through it what a better way to start indeed then a lovely picture it's the boy or girl that's the creepy that's the question so sorry to disappoint you you young ones when I said how sex is determined when I spoke about how sex is determined you had a whole lot of other ideas in their mind in they were thinking either they were thinking every starting no when we say how sex is determined we talking about how the child that is about to be born how they determined for that child to be a boy or a girl and so there we have the mums there with a nice round tummy and she wants to know whether she's having a baby boy or a baby girl and how is this done now remember last week we went through the whole procedure of p1 genotype phenotype etc and we went to the last part and it was the punnett square we also spoke about when we spoke about meiosis we said that the male has the sex chromosomes XY and the female has the sex chromosomes xx and that what helps us to determine the sex of a baby so here's the father XY these are the game eats so he can either have a sperm with X gene or a sperm what Y gene or we call it the X chromosome and the Y chromosome the mother on the other hand does not have this choice she has only X and another X so the females can only offer the X chromosome the males on the other hand can either donate or contribute I would say rather contribute the X chromosome or the X gene or the Y gene so if we put this on a punnett square that gives you X X that and that gives you X X again YX gives you X Y or Y X remember you can like it either way X Y so X X is a female and X Y is male so according to those guys what other ratios that we are looking at every time fertilization takes place what are the probable not the word the probable ratios the probable ratios according to this is obviously 2 is to 2 or rather made simpler 1 is to 1 or we can say 50% is to 50% that means every time fertilization takes place according to the laws of probability and according to the laws of genetics the probability is 50% chance of having a boy child and 50% child 50% chance of having a female child ok so what are we actually going to do is we're going to take a tiny quick break and when we get back we're going to carry on with the lesson please post equations on to facebook-dot-com forward-slash to learn extra nukes and check me in the unta at learn extra I'm loving the show genetics live science it's all about you see you now after the break hi guys and welcome back grade 12 I hope that you have been watching who knows let me have you been watching since grade 10 11 I would love to know that to know if you have this I'm going to sound like a repeat repeat repeat this is the most important link you need to know this year guys it is learn extra Co today /live and what you're going to get at that link is our schedules our show notes and as well as our past week's videos so when you go there it's like the one-stop shop for everything you're going to need this year and great twelves if you start working now it's still February you've still got the rest of the year to do this and if you join us every day for learn extra life wall every Wednesday for learn extra life I promise you you are going to do amazingly right I said yes stop in the beginning but sure hey all the time and it can still go back and watch if did must a few lessons exactly exactly good let's move on welcome back mindset us well the million-dollar question in nee do I get a million dollars yes I don't if I afford it okay question who contributes who determines then besides God besides God we're not talking about God no from the couple a married couple husband and wife who contributor Minh whether the child's gonna be born is a male or a female from what I said earlier oh my gosh there's a tough one India there is a tough one I mean I probably tell you the male must have the Y chromosome so where's the wild chromosome only in the father so only the father determines whether the child is going to be male or female again to all those very religious people including myself are we not talking about God in this equation that we are talking about we are talking about the probability factor so the male is the contributor so James Abram John all those guys in the knot Belinda was a director don't if your wife had a girl another girl another girl it's not her fault it's his fault it's his fault because he is Y chromosome is too lazy to do the job okay so the male will determine the maleness it's only the male that contributes the y-chromosome so therefore it is the male sperm it depends which sperm reaches the egg remember that and we spoke about the sperms a different one one of the two genes in each of the sperm Mendel's law of segregation each of the two aliens separate into the different sex cells so that's what we will do now remember in exams they like to ask this question Islamic India had five children and the first one was a boy the second one was a girl the third one was a girl the fourth one was a boy the first one is a girl what is the probability of them having a girl child in the seventh instance the answer will still be 80% 50% because the probability is still one is two one doesn't matter just understand this very carefully when I was in grade 12 indeed I always thought not in this particular problem but I always thought this would be the first child at the second child at the third child at the fourth child and the punnett square what this actually means that every time fertilization takes place these are the probabilities it doesn't mean that's number one number two number three you could end we know for a fact there are people that have only boy children there are other couples that have only girl children so where does this go this only gives the probability remember that okay so remember whenever you see that question what is the probability of you getting a boy or a girl fifty-fifty doesn't change no matter how many children they've had before the good we move on to something a little bit more complicated but if you listen carefully and if you use and apply your mind it should be easy we talking about sex linked traits again don't raise those eyebrows we are talking about those genes that are on the sex chromosomes that means a gene that codes for a particular characteristic indeed which is found on the X or the Y chromosome remember we have 23 sets of chromosomes 22 of those are autosomes that means they are normal body chromosomes and the last pair pair number 23 are known in a scientific term go no zones or gonna dos zones that means the sex chromosomes those are the ones that determine the sex of the resultant zygote in addition to this function of determining sex they may also carry some other characteristics or rather sorry they may carry some other genes which code for other characteristics those genes that are carried on the sex chromosome are called sex linked genes yup I nearly fell over the border in d.c that lucky me I would have I would have saved I would have saved you what I saved you wouldn't have okay certain human disorders like hemophilia are caused by sex linked genes that means the gene that causes hemophilia is carried on the sex chromosome in this particular case on the X chromosome the Y chromosome is much smaller so therefore chances of it carrying many genes is reduced it does carry but much less and we are more interested in the ones that are carried on the X chromosome so there we have already explained that whole story there if a male inherits the recessive allele on an X chromosome from his mother obviously he will receive the X chromosome from his mother if we go back back man back again sorry know forward forward there we go now remember here's a male XY where did he get the Y from from the father they had the Y day from the father this X he got from the mother that's what you got to keep in your mind as we talk so if I'm mainly narrator recessive a lead on an X chromosome from his mother he will have emo failure in if his mother had emo failure and she transferred or if she was a carrier even and she transferred this X chromosome to him then he would have hemophilia why you ask because it's a recessive outcome and I said last week that for the recessive characteristic to show it must be almost I guess but let's take this case he is has received one X with a hemophilia hemophilia small age their superscript and he has why I said earlier that the Y chromosome does not carry the hemophilia gene so it doesn't even carry the normal gene so because he doesn't have another gene to counteract this one even though he has it only one that means he has it on the X chromosome he has mo failure whereas a female if she inherits one from the mother or the father and the other one is the normal one she has the normal the cat is there so the mice can't play remember when the cat is away the mice can't play even though this is not homozygous but there is no cat here by the white why can't carry the the cat all on its back if you want to put it that way so therefore the boy gets hemophilia in that case we look at some examples a little later if a female in editor recessive Ealing he would not have the disorder as long as the other X chromosome carried normal dominant allele of the gene as I showed you in the example that she had the normal one however if she had two recessive ones then obviously there's no cat there so the mice will play so she'll be hemophilia hemophilia is just one example colorblindness red-green color blindness is another example of sex-linked disorders let's move on and there we have a table to show what we are talking about look at the genotype X H capital H Y that means that the normal gene so he has normal blood clot intact okay let's just go back again what is hemophilia hemophilia is a condition where the factor that is necessary to cause the blood to clot when you are bleeding when you have an injury and you get a cut and starts bleeding the blood clots there's a factor that causes that if that factor is absent you would be suffering from hemophilia so the person that has the recessive gene they in this case here will have mo failure in this case X X capital capital gamma homozygous normal X H heterozygous female she is normal but she carries the recessive allele so we call her a carrier she's a carrier she has the potential of passing this on to her son's especially okay if she has to pass it on to her daughter's then her husband must also carry that gene so that X small H X small H would make the daughters also hemophilia there we have this last scenario there so the one these are obviously examples of mutations mutation means something going wrong and here's a classic example something is going wrong this person cannot clot their blood normally other mutations are autosomal this is a sex-linked one the others are autosomal meaning they are they affect the other chromosomes the other 22 pairs and some are recessive while others are dominant okay we are going to do example so don't stress today I'm trying to push the content and then do questions because we've been falling behind on our question time so we're going to do questions and when we do the questions then the way you answer and the format will become clearer okay so don't stress about it we're now looking at a pedigree diagram what is this pedigree diagram that everybody's talking about it is a chart or a diagram to show graphically the inheritance patterns over a number of generations couple of things that we need to know here obviously they are usually used to study the inheritance of genetic disorders but they can be used for anything pedigree diagram can be used to show a simple monohybrid cross as well a pedigree diagram can be used for anything you want to use it for it is mainly used by genetic counselors to map out to a potential couple that took these other scenarios in front of you for example a particular female as hemophilia or rather she knows that in her family there was him Ophelia he wants to get married and the couple are now interested to see whether they going to have children with him Ophelia so they see a genetic counselor and he then maps out a pedigree diagram like this and say look these are the scenarios that can happen he cannot tell them a lesson in D ah stop you can't get married because your children may be hemophiliac all he does is he tells you look these are the situation this is what can happen after that Indian hasta must decide whether they're going to get married or not oh it's a tough decision for toughness it's a very tough decision so what are the risks what are the percentages what how do we how do we make that decision as them how am I going to answer when we look at the questions later and the important thing is when the counselor gives us this option and the same with Down syndrome if the car you go to a counselor and he wants to know whether you want to know whether you have a risk of having a Down syndrome baby all he does is it tells you look these are the probabilities that you can have baby with Down's indeed then we'll have to take the decision look this is what Down syndrome is all about these are the symptoms of Down syndrome these are the symptoms of emo failure these are the symptoms of color blindness will I be able to cope with rearing a child like this so Indy or whoever else will have to make the decision okay and know when you make the decision any decision and this is not about life sciences about life any decision you make you have to take the responsibility of whatever comes after that with a decision wise words okay hey laugh lessons as well guys is all the time life science all right what we need to know in a pedigree diagram first of all you'll notice these are squares and there are circles there are some that are shaded and there are some that are unshaded for example in the sexes in this particular illustration we have the circles there and the key is given to you circles are females okay circles represent females squares represent males so that's the first thing we have to understand the ones that are shaded usually in a disorder pedigree diagram the ones that are shaded are the ones that will have the disorder so in the aura being asked the questions is now and the ones that are unshaded are the so-called normal ones or the carriers it can be carriers also but normal okay second thing that we need to know is that there are certain layers can you see that this one two three layers yeah these three layers represent three different generation this is the first generation this is the second generation that is the third generation also we have to note that only when the line interconnects two organisms or two individuals other I should say and from there another line connects other individuals like four five six seven all of these are offspring for one and two number five is not an offspring one and two because it's not connected to one and two it is only connected to four and number eight is also not there Ossining it is probably the wife of number seven and this is the husband of number four and so on and so on so a couple of things that you have to remember circles female square may shaded norm usually that the affected organisms are individuals and unshaded the normal ones the different levels different generations there must be a connection to be offspring of the one before and this one here is talking about albinism that should be an eye albinism albinism is not a sex-linked disorder it is an autosomal disorder and it is caused by a recessive alien now if we have to complete this particular child very simply remember what I said last week when the cat is away the mice will play albinism is caused by a recessive disorder so obviously if an individual is affected by albinism it must have homozygous recessive that is the key in this problem so what can we do now we can and let's say we using capital a and small a so we go immediately to the shaded ones and we fill in the small a small a small a small a small a small a small a small a so these individuals number one number eight number thirty number fourteen they are all homozygous recessive why do we say that because albinism is caused by a recessive gene and a recessive characteristic will only show itself if it is in the homozygous remember last week we spoke about the test cross a test cross is used to determine whether a dominant organism or an organism showing the dominant characteristic is homozygous or heterozygous for a recessive characteristic we don't have to do a test because it has to be almost like us from there we need to go to the parents now let's look at four five six seven all of them should have a small a why because the mother the small to small age so he contributed one gene to them all small age so they all have the smaller but are they shaded no they not so they are normal so they should have the capital a as well so they are all heterozygous for this condition so there will be normal but there will be carriers number will come to number three just now let's look at seven and eight seven and eight they have these offspring or obvious number eight would have contributed a small a to number twelve at the same time because it's normal it should have the capital letter a to make it normal so that is how you work that one now this is where you get a little confusion or trickiness but it's not a strange match all of these offspring are showing the normal condition and the individual four has heterozygous for the condition now what about the spirit because we don't have further evidence we would then be able to assume that this could be either a a or a small egg because we don't have any other suggestions here and if all these offsprings are a eight they could have been a a a a a or any one of them could have been a small a because they could have inherited this small gene from the mother and the other normal gene from the father now notice if you do what I just told you first fill in the recessive characteristics and thereafter work backwards or forwards or upwards or downwards guys I think that has earned you a break in antastic that's exactly what they're going to do hey guys you going to go to a break and we're going to be back in literally I think two minutes post your questions on the page facebook.com forward slash learn extra they are some really really good questions grade twelve I'm loving the energy and I hope that you enjoying the show as much as we are I'm having such fun see now after the break hi guys and welcome back to learn extra live it is grade 12 life science and we are having such such fun it's nice to be ting topic everyone's posting questions on the page and I think SM is going over everything that you are asking but I will ask him in the last section of the page I mean the last sections are so what am I talking about I'm just looking at your page I know mutation research I'm looking on the page here this is there is an approach from Maki Maki and he has posted a picture of him helping his little brother obviously doing homework that is so amazing paying it forward guys please post your random acts of kindness on the page now because after the next break we will be announcing the winner of this awesome prize lots of Simba chips are going to be eating Simba tips for men so you'll be wearing this awesome mindset a t-shirt and you're going to win not one but five CDs so get posting find the VINs pay-it-forward random acts of kindness and go but first I think aslam its back to you thanks indi welcome back guys we picked up quite a lot of questions about pedigree and liquor since I'm lost with pedigree I'm hoping Enric from what I've done here now you with us I'm going to go through this very quickly again what do we do in a pedigree diagram we look for the shaded ones and the shaded ones are usually the affected ones again provided that the affected ones are recessive if that characteristic is not to be recessive then it's the reversed but the recessive one you will go to whatever the recessive one even in a normal monohybrid cross look for the recessive one when you find the recessive one you fill in two lowercase or small letters into that whatever let it may be small ours or small A's in this case you fill them all in as we have done number 30 number 40 number eight number one so you fill in that and then you go downwards if there are two parents each parent contributes one gene to each of their children so automatically five four five six and seven get a small a and because they are not affected and they are not recessive whichever way you want to look at they must have the big letter as well to counteract that recessive characteristic hence we have that situation and that way you go to whatever I've done here you can do right through if there's 16 such generations you can go down 16 generations working upwards or downwards wherever the recessive ones are found first you work upwards or downwards from there I'm hoping that clears up any pedigree problems you may have lots of kids look at the pedigree diagram and say oh shucks how the hell am I going to do this there's the Kaiser answer look for the recessive full in that recessive as two small letters wherever the recessive one is and work backwards and downwards or upwards whichever way you want to look at Hindi that's it you know it works for me it works for me and mine Texas if you still don't understand please post equations on the page and remember this is a community so it's not just fast it's also for you if you see a question that you understand you know the answer to please post your answer because sometimes by helping other mine sitters actually actually teaching yourself at the very same time that's for sure whatever you teach hardly ever you going to forget ask me searching oh yeah okay we want to know the difference I told you at the beginning we want to know the difference between select selective breeding and genetic engineering and very simple selective breeding English against selective breeding select to select breeding to mate organisms so what would we human beings use different organisms the best of the organisms obviously and they select those organs that have the best quality which horse racing it would be other losses that run the fastest that are muscular they healthy they run the fastest if it is the chicken or lamb it would be the ones that give the best meat or in the case of chicken the best eggs if it's tomatoes or tomatoes or potatoes it would be the one that gives the largest fruit tomato tomato by the way is a fruit in it it has everything it was the it develops opulent last week I think the great general Evans went through the words so where the individual chooses these organisms of the same species and made them in the hope of getting the best quality obviously you're not going to selectively breed organisms for the worst quality who would want to do that that would be a waste of effort time and money nobody's going to do that you want the best funded so that is selective breeding so that's actually not interfering with the genes you simply choosing the individuals that show better characteristics and allowing them to interpret whereas genetic engineering involves identifying certain genes not an individual but a gene and how do we can how can we get to this because of the genome project where they have isolated the different chromosomes and said where which gene is found in others they've mapped this whole thing out indeed in our body our 23 chromosome they can tell you on chromosome number 20 these are the genes that are found that these are the genes that code for this and that and the other we call it the human genome project so in that way we can also find out all other defects and from there we can also develop certain cures for especially genetic disorders okay so they identify those genes and they move them from one organism to another or of the same species or to a different species and even they can remove their gene entirely from there so they are manipulating the G's genetic engineering engineering the genes they are messing with genes that's what we are talking about both obviously are controversial they have lots of arguments against them and some will argue for them as well just to give you some examples selective breeding yours Brahman cattle we have good resistance to heat but poor beef they take the good in a drought they can survive but the meat that comes from them not so nice and they made those with English or tone cattle they have good good beef but poor heat resistance so when they made them the offspring has the best of both worlds therefore you're getting the center cut Reuters cattle close of these two breeds what's the result it has good meat and it's resistant to heat so this is how humans can manipulate the organisms to get the best result and this can be said also what a population of maize what's happening is the seeds for the next generation are chosen from only individuals with the most desirable traits the others are not used and therefore we have this process over several generation and over time the quality of the crop increases notice no way in this example did they interfere with the genes they only took the seeds that came from an individual that showed desirable characteristics and they promulgated a propagated rather not promulgated that's a law propagated propagated those seeds and therefore we're getting over several thousand happen today and tomorrow it over several generations we get only the healthy ones surviving don't confuse this with natural selection which we're going to do in the next lesson but the question is what is the difference between selective breeding and genetic engineering and I'm sure from my letter from my discussion earlier you have got that answer if you have that answer please post it on so Indy can give me the thumbs up a little bit later to say that we are getting the idea that we want to know whether you understanding what we are saying here so post your answers there so Indy can give me the thumbs up I like that I like that cars you want to see teeth on say what are the advantages of selective breeding we might get improved organized remains not a guarantee it's not a guarantee because we don't know these good organisms that we are breeding are they homozygous for those conditions or heterozygous if they had those I guess is going to be problems because they can pass on the so-called bad gene and and that's not going to be good okay they do not need any special tools or lab to do this they simply put these two organisms together can be performed easily by farmers and breeders undesirable traits on both parents may appear in the offspring disease can accumulate these are sorry where we must something ha ha I should have known that from the time I said undesirable can undesirable be an advantage in it no that's definite disadvantage yes day so arguments against or disadvantages undesirable remember I said earlier about heterozygous if these were two heterozygous pairs and one of the individual gets that undesirable characteristic so it can appear in offspring and that's not a good thing diseases can accumulate in a population if there's a disease between these organisms this disease can then accumulate over several generations they give you an example there remember the deaf Dalmatians boxes without disease labs with hip problems etc etc etc these are different examples that they are giving you where because of selective breeding we basically accentuate certain problems as well so while is good where the good gets better but the bad gets better what better better we're sad ways were sister we're sisters out escapes so that's what can happen apart from that everybody out there would obviously use religion as a disadvantage or an argument against it as well by saying that we are messing with nature with Mother Nature guys actually sure that's that's an interesting thoughts nothing it could be debated for hours and hours but what we going to do is we going to take a quick break because we are moving into the last fifteen minutes of the show we will be giving away this when we get back see you now hey and welcome back guys mindset says we have been looking at all of your questions on the page there are so much as them has a look through them and then he kind of picks and chooses and he figures out what is the most important and what he really needs you guys to know so trust in Islam and he is her he's rolling his eyes but it's true it really is true I think he is going to go over some of the questions that he has seen on the page and then obviously this is happening in the last few minutes of the show okay so ask them take it away which question do you want to start with okay I will take the question which asks if seven and eight I don't know Harry it was Harry Harry Harry oh Sid hey Potter yes her hariom timber hey kimball okay he says if seven and eight have another child what is the percentage probability of having a normal child that's a very good question guys this is where genetics comes back there's a pedigree diagram do not look at it as something totally different this is still genetics he wants to know everyone's to know if seven and eight have another child what is the percentage probability of them having a child who is Albie Albie no yes yeah okay and what happens if seven eight nine Hey haha ah you need exactly I need a serious with any day but I'm still sharp I had my vitamins today did you okay so these are the parents who are the parents the one was heterozygous the mother was homozygous okay so we working out across so this is your p1 the game meats are obviously a treat it like any other genetic problem here's your game it you spread them out and up we're going to say meiosis I'm going to do all the so that you remember and they're after these are the game eats and now we have fertilization taking place and there we draw the square whatever is on the left keep it on the left a capital a small a to small is there a a all right now what's happening we want to know the percentage probability there a a heterozygous a a heterozygous small a small a homozygous recessive small a small a homozygous recessive so what is the percentage probability 50% chance or one if you're not asking percentage you asking about the ratio 1 is to 1 you can see it's 2 is to 2 taken down to its simplest becomes 1 is to 1 so there's a 50% chance of them having an albino child and a 50% chance of having a normal child who would be a carrier there was another question that I saw as you are running through is this pedigree and writing the small letters only for albinism or for other issues as well wherever there's a genetic problem monohybrid situation or high blood problem if they give it to in pedigree whatever the recessive condition is or color or shape that would then get the two small letters lowercase letters and you work your way around that I'm not going to waste too much time on that otherwise we won't get done with what we want to do further okay we're talking about genetic engineering stuff and here's one example of genetic engineering and this is prescribed in a syllabus so you know you need to know it okay and this one here is the production of insulin what do we do here we remove a string of DNA from bacteria there we go there's a better string of DNA it's also called a plasmid we use a restriction enzyme which is a chemical scissor to cut open a space there on that and then we take a cell from a human from the pancreas which the normal gene for insulin is found we cut that gene off again with restriction enzyme and we use an enzyme to insert that into that plasmid and we allow those bacteria to replicate or rather we can say we're talking of this topic to make clones of itself naturally naturally why because a sexual reproduction takes place here and therefore every bacterium that develops on this one would be identical to this one and we then isolate the insulin that has been produced and we purify it and we make it ready for use we keep it in vials you can then buy it from the pharmacy and whenever you need to use the insulin to inject yourself you would then use it in this way the insulin is available on demand advantage no animal had to be killed for this process advantage there is no side effects because it's human insulin advantage and we we not we don't have any religious objections remember some people cannot use certain parts of certain animals so there's four advantages now let's reverse that and the question ask you what's the disadvantage of production of insulin before genetic engineering whatever we said for the advantage has become disadvantages but you reverse it why there's religious objections there are side effects we have to kill animals to do this and it's not always available so guys can you see by learning one thing the advantage of one is the disadvantage of the old but in Reverse be very careful okay good so that was that and some examples of that scientists have engineered chickens to be featherless by removing the gene in chicken DNA that causes them to go remember we said by removing some of the genes there is an example chickens without feathers some ladies might be saying WOW we don't have to do extra work for that I I'm thinking shame that's terrible yes time they said Indian I would be saying shame oh you try there we have a cabbage now these cabbage plants are susceptible to being eaten by some bugs so what they do is they take the gene that call order that it produces poison in a scorpion and they insert it into the genes of the cabbage so cabbage then becomes a bug proof the insects won't eat it because it becomes poisonous to them fortunately not for us placing antifreeze gene from fish taking the antifreeze from fish remember fish live in water if the water freeze the fish don't die because they have fluid in the body called empty fridge in inverted commas so the tomato's can still grow in cold weather this one just an interesting one scientists use the bio luminescent gene from a jellyfish to create glowing green mice and other factors that they use for experimentation cloning obviously you would have got that definition by now is a product production of genetically identical individuals from an existing individual now this can be done necessarily like in the case of bacteria etc or in our lives we can also make clones of organisms the most famous of that was Dolly the sheep right you can read more about that we're not going to go into the detail I'll post on the page Jolley the sheep is post on the favoritos now the other thing you come across a lot is GM GM genetically modified so you talk about genetically modified organisms so that is a topic that you need to read the questions they'd like to ask there are what are the arguments for and what are the arguments against these things that brings us to the questions and I'm going to go straight to a question that deals with a pedigree first somebody said earlier we must ask we must do examples of pedigree here's a diagram there woody mow failure in a family here's a stoner this is hemophilia remember hemophilia sex-linked so there they have the story they're affected unaffected and so on how many family members not affected by mo failure are carriers are carriers in this case if four had to be hemophilia it had to be X small age why this age could have come from the mother or well it from the mother x-small age because the father is normal he left the capital H so that's one these ones have both so this is another one these ones have both so this is another one remember the father cannot be homozygous or heterozygous because he only has one gene for you okay so there's three of them there explain why this disorder affects mostly males in the family because males do not have the alternate X chromosome with a possibility of a normal gene to counteract the effects of the hemophilia gene I think with that I would have to say cheerio for the cheerios and indi and as I'm you aren't going anywhere just yet guys we have come to the end of the show I wish we could do a two-hour show I'm having so much fun and I know that you guys feel the same but remember you can watch this on our YouTube channel I have to be very quick because we are doing the giveaway but this is the important news guys it's not one winner today it is two winners today yeah me and you that is yeah we weren't no I'm joking if I if I yeah okay awesome I'm gonna need your help you just me guys do you trust me dude I don't know here some of them are like kind of don't look down Nick there we go come stand right here comes down right here running from the camera okay okay come I'm taking it okay this one and I'm sorry I get so happy this one Steffi Steffi is the winner of our first random acts of kindness giveaway and she posted um don't tell people your dreams show them but Steffi but Steffi actually she posted I think about five or six times she helped out at a hospital she looked after her friend it was incredible she is incredible so now second one second one I think I got about one minute left it'll be tight it's always fun as long Indiana Belinda Cabello Cabello helped painting he helped his mom paint the entire room last week Saturday so well done to these monsters help yourselves help others and help South Africa become a better place yeah and a big shout-out to Lindsey we love Lindsey works in the background and you know what Cabello Steffie hopefully if you'll come in and fetch the prize in studio and then you'll help us you know will help us help you eat them because we've all been sitting here looking at all these prizes and and it looks delicious thank you so much all of you mindset says you shout you pay – I've got a shout out twice because without Lindsey I don't have this exactly so big up – Lindsey thank you so much grades 12 for faith for an amazing show see you same time same place next week goodbye

3 thoughts on “Genetics and Genetic Engineering

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