Introductory Science Module 3 – Biological Levels of Organization
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Introductory Science Module 3 – Biological Levels of Organization


{opening music} Hello, I’m Cammie Emory from the division of
Science, Nursing, and Allied Health at Bossier Parish Community College. What we’re gonna talk about today, in
this session of open campus, is the biological levels organization. So you’ve started learning a new language, medical terminology, to be specific, you’ve
learned some new words, you’re starting to work with those new
words now let’s see what you actually be looking at in
anatomy and physiology. One of the things we know is that scientists love to organize things and put them in
categories. To classify those things. So one
classification that used in science is called biological levels of
organization. What biological levels of organization
basically means is we’re gonna start at the smallest structure that we can study and we’re gonna move up to the most
complex. So basically looking at it as moving up
the ladder. So let’s look at some of these levels and how they relate to A and P in particular, to human anatomy and physiology. The atom is the smallest structure that we can
look at. We take atoms we combine those together and we form molecules. We put molecules together and we form
macromolecules. Macromolecules are really big molecules. When we combine macromolecules. we form organelles. With a collection of
organelles, we form a cell. The organelles should help the cell and show the cell how it’s going to function. When we take cells and put those
together we form tissues, We put several tissues together and we
can form an organ, and of course if we put organs together,
we form an organ system. The organ system that pictured here, is
the digestive system. When those eleven different systems
are put together, we have the organism that we wish to
learn about, which is the human body. So let’s look at the smallest thing that we can study
and move up from there. So everything, whether it’s a living
organism or a non living organism, are made at a elements. The smallest unit of an element is an atom, so this is the smallest
structure that can be studied. When we put atoms together we form molecules. The picture here is a molecule of water. If you look at it, there’s two little
blue balls those represent hydrogens, and there’s a
larger red ball that represents the oxygen. So two atoms of hydrogen, one atom of oxygen, and when those are bonded together, we
have a molecule of water. When we write it out chemically, it’s “H two O.” Ok when we take molecules and put those together we form what’s
called a macromolecule. Macro, the prefix macro-, means big and this is a
big molecule. Some examples of macromolecules are proteins, carbohydrates, fats. This is a drawing of a carbohydrate
molecule. What you’re actually looking at there, I
believe, is a little molecule of glucose. But it’s considered a macromolecule. You
can see it’s made out of carbon, which is represented by the “C”, hydrogen which is represented by the “H,” and oxygen which is represented by the “O.” This is a
molecule, a macromolecule, because it’s big, it’s a
macromolecule that’s a carbohydrate. So let’s look at
these levels organization again. We start with
the atom which is the smallest structure that we
can study. We take atoms and we combine those together and we form a molecule This is a molecule of water, one oxygen two hydrogens, we now have a molecule of
water. When we put molecules together we form
macromolecules. Remember macro- means big. Now if we take
those macromolecules and put those together we form organelles. Organelles are the little structures within a cell that help it to function. So some examples up some organelles are
the nucleus, which is typically located in the center
of a cell, the mitochondria, which the cell uses
to produce energy. The centrioles, we’ve got endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, we’ve got quite a lot
organelles within a cell. But those organelles are gonna help the
cell to function and allow it to perform the things that
are vital for that cell to survive. So when we look at the cell itself, we’ve
taken organelles and put those together now we have a cell, basically formed by a
collection of organelles. Cells are the simple in structure that
are considered to be alive. You look at this diagram of a cell you
can see in the very center kinda looks like a marble that’s the nucleolus, it’s surrounded by a structure called
the nucleus. Around the outside of the nucleus is the
cytoplasm, and inside of that cytoplasm is a
whole bunch of different organelles: ribosomes and endoplasmic
reticulum, centrioles, mitochondria, lots oforganelles that are gonna allow
that cell to function as it should. So let’s step back again and review our
levels of organization. We start with the smallest structure
that we can study, which is the atom. We take atoms and put those together and
we form molecules. We put molecules together and we form
macromolecules. With macromolecules we put those
together and form organelles and its those organelles when they’re
put together that form a cell. Now if we put cells
together we’re gonna form tissues. So some other types and tissues that we
can study connective tissue, epithelial
tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue So the cells come together and they form
these types of tissues. When we put tissues together we form
organs. This is a picture of a heart. The
heart is an organ. The stomach is an organ, the bladder is
an organ, So organs are formed when tissues come
together. When we put several organs together and
allow them to function together they form in organ system. The skeletal
system is an organ system that’s made from the
bones. When we put organ systems together, we
can create the organism. And like we mentioned before
there’s eleven different organ systems that allow us to form the human body. So let’s look at this level organization
one more time. We start with the atom, which is the
smallest structure we can study. We combine atoms together and we form
molecules. We put molecules together to form big
molecules that are called macromolecules. We put macromolecules together and we
can form organelles. The organelle pictured here is a
mitochondria. When we put organelles together they form the
cell, and the cell is the structure that’s going to
function for us. The cells together form a tissue, we put
tissues together to form an organ, This is the stomach, and the stomach is
just one part of an organ system called the digestive
system. We put all 11 at those organ systems
together we form the human organism. I hope this has helped in your
understanding and the levels of organization of the human body thank you. {closing music} home

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