Major Groups Of Organic Molecules – What Are Organic Molecules – The Molecules Of Life
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Major Groups Of Organic Molecules – What Are Organic Molecules – The Molecules Of Life

The major groups of organic molecules. Organic molecules are found
in living systems, including the human body, and are
generally defined as compounds that contain molecules
that have a carbon, carbon covalent bond, or a carbon
hydrogen covalent bond. Covalent bonds being bonds where
electrons are shared between the atoms. There are four major groups
of organic molecules, carbohydrates, lipids or fats,
proteins and nucleic acids. These are often referred to
as the molecules of life. All carbohydrates contain
carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, usually in a
ratio of 1 to 2 to 1, as you can see in this linear
model of a glucose molecule, glucose being one of the most important
smaller or simpler carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates can link together
in chains or rings to form longer more complex carbohydrates as you can see
here in this chain of glucose molecules. Lipids are composed mainly of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen; however, lipids contain a lower proportion of
oxygen atoms than do carbohydrates. Here is a linear model of a triglyceride
molecule, which is a type of lipid. You can see the many
carbon, carbon and carbon, hydrogen covalent bonds
throughout the molecule. Some lipids do contain
nitrogen and phosphorus. There are several types of lipids, which
we will cover in depth in another video. All Proteins contain 4 elements,
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Proteins are giant macromolecules that are
made up of amino acid building blocks. Here are 2 different amino
acid molecules, and here are these molecules bonded
together to form a dipeptide. Amino acids can link together to
form long chains, typically a protein consists of 100 or more
amino acids linked together. Some proteins contain
phosphorus, sulfur, iron, zinc, magnesium
and other trace metals. There are 2 main types
of nucleic acids, DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid and
RNA or ribonucleic acid. Nucleic acids are large
molecules that are made up of smaller molecules
called nucleotides. The nucleotides in these
molecules are linked together through covalent bonds and
through hydrogen bonds. DNA is a double stranded
nucleic acid and its molecules take on a
double helix formation. Most RNA molecules are single
stranded nucleic acids and many times they form a
folded compacted structure with some hydrogen bonding taking
place within the molecule. In future videos we will
be going in depth into the structure of each of these
types of molecules. And that, be the basics on the
major groups of organic molecules.

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