Molecular Visualizations of DNA ENG/PL SUBTITLED [Napisy]
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Molecular Visualizations of DNA ENG/PL SUBTITLED [Napisy]

In this animation we’ll see
the remarkable way our DNA is tightly packed up so that six-feet of this long
molecule fits into the microscopic nucleus of every cell The process starts when DNA is
wrapped around special protein molecules called histones The combined loop of DNA and protein
is called a nucleosome Next, the nucleosomes are packaged into a thread The end result is a fiber known as chromatin This fiber is then looped and coiled
yet again leading finally to the familiar shapes
known as chromosomes which can be seen in the nucleus of dividing cells Chromosomes are not always present They form around the time cells divide
when the two copies of the cell’s DNA need to be separated Using computer animation
based on molecular research We are now able to see how DNA
is actually copied in living cells You’re looking at an assembly line of
amazing, miniature biochemical machines that are pulling apart
the DNA double helix and cranking out a copy of each strand The DNA to be copied enters the
production line from bottom left The whirling blue molecular machine is
called helicase It spins the DNA as fast as
a jet engine as it unwinds the double helix
into two strands One strand is copied continuously and can be seen schooling off to the right Things are not so simple for the other strand
because it must be copied backwards It is drawn out repeatedly in loops
and copied one section at a time The the end result is two new
DNA molecules What you’re about to see is DNA’s
most extraordinary secret – how a simple code is turned into flesh and blood.
It begins with a bundle of factors assembling at the start of a gene. A gene is simply a length of DNA instruction
stretching away to the left The assembled factors trigger
the first phase of the process reading off the information
that will be needed to make the protein Everything is ready to roll
Three, two, one… Go! The blue molecule racing along the DNA
is reading the gene. It’s unzipping the double helix
and copying one of the two strands The yellow chain snaking out of the top
is a copy of the genetic message and it’s made out of a close
chemical cousin of DNA called RNA The building blocks to make the RNA
enter through an intake hole They are matched to the DNA
letter by letter to copy the ‘A’s, ‘C’s, ‘T’s
and ‘G’s of the gene The only difference is that in the RNA copy
the letter T is replaced with a closely related building block
known as U You are watching this process,
called transcription, in real time. It’s happening right now in almost
every cell in your body When the RNA copy is complete,
it snakes out into the outer part of the cell Then, in a dazzling display of choreography,
all the components of the molecular machine lock together
around the RNA to form a miniature factory called a ribosome It translates the genetic information in the RNA
into a string of amino acids that will become a protein Special transfer molecules – the green triangles – bring each amino acid to the ribosome The amino acids are the small red tips
attached to the transfer molecules There are different transfer molecules
for each of the twenty amino acids. Each transfer molecule carries a
three-letter code that is matched with the RNA in the machine Now, we come to the heart of the process. Inside the ribosome, the RNA is pulled through like a tape The code for each amino acid
is read off, three letters at a time, and matched to three corresponding letters
on the transfer molecules When the right transfer molecule plugs in, the amino acid it carries is added
to the growing protein chain Again… you are watching this in real time And after a few seconds,
the assembled protein starts to emerge from the ribosome Ribosomes can make any kind of protein It just depends what genetic messages
you feed in on the RNA In this case the end product is hemoglobin. The cells in our bone marrow churn out
a hundred trillion molecules of it per second and as a result, our muscles, brain and all the vital organs
in our body receive the oxygen they need.

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