Nephrology - Kidney Physiology Overview
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Nephrology – Kidney Physiology Overview



I wonder how certain I'm biology and medicine videos please make sure to subscribe join the forum and group for the latest videos please visit Facebook come on dose again please like and here you can also ask questions answer questions and post some interesting things including your hours and you can also change the quality settings to the highest on for better graphics in this video we're going to talk about the physio physiology of kidneys to an extent so just recapping remember we have two kidneys the right Kenyon the left kidney and we have the ureter which then deposits the urine or the waste into the urinary bladder which then is excreted um the kidneys have many functions let's look at some of them for first they regulate extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and they also regulate osmolarity the maintenance of iron balance they have a role in homeostatic regulation of pH excretion of waste very important production of hormones such as reading and also they perform gluconeogenesis in times of starvation and these are just some of the things the kidneys do the kidneys so they're made up of they're made up of kidney cells many types of cells but what's important in kidneys are the functional units which are the nephrons and these aren't cells these are functional units cells make up the functional unit which is the nephron so here we have one nephron one functional unit of the kidney let's look at its anatomy the head of the nephron this space around here is known as a bone it's capsule after substances has been filtered through this area it will enter the proximal convoluted tubules into the loop of Henle this loop here which has two parts the descending limb and the ascending limb the ascending limb actually has a thin pot and a thick pot and the thick pot comes close back to the head of the nephron as you can see and then it and then it connects to the distal convoluted tubules which then connects onto the collecting duct and all these nephrons will connect essentially to the collecting duct where it will um add up to produce the waste the urine that we will that we will pass on to the bladder and then you'll go out as pee I hope that makes sense so now let's look at this area around this building's capsule and this glimmer glomerulus area if you remember from the overall video on the nephrology actually if you haven't watched the Neff all nephrology overview video I probably suggest you watch them so here we have the Bowman's capsule this space in the head of the nephron and here are the proximal convoluted tubules the beginning notice how there are different types of cells we have the squamous cells in the Bowman's capsule area and then we have the cuboidal cells in the proximal tubules here we have the blood vessel entering this Bowman's capsule first of all the afferent arteriole enters the Bowman's capsule where it will then become what's called a glomerulus which will then wrap around this Bowman's capsule area and then will exit out of this head through the efferent arteriole the blood vessel brings in many types of substances ions red blood cells plasma etc remember the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the thick ascending limb how it goes back towards the head of the nephron well it does this because I'm cells within this thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle they contain cells which are important in maintaining ionic balance such as sodium and chloride so here we have the thickness ascending loop of Henle which came from the loop of Henle and the thick ascending loop of Henle will connect on Later to the distal tubules hope this makes sense essentially so let's look at some cells and look at let's look at some more anatomy within the glomerulus we have special cells which basically wrap around these capillaries and these are known as podocytes and they have many feet like projections and they're important in filtration of substances from the capillaries into the nephron itself and then we have these other cells known known as missing dial cells and they're important in contraction and altering blood flow and connecting basically everything together rapping around you can say the blood vessels the blood the blood capillaries such as the afferent arteriole and the efferent arteriole we have what's called granular cells and these cells are mechanoreceptors and they also secrete a hormone known as Renan Renan is important later on in a big system known as a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system which it helps maintain blood pressure now we also have missing glial cells out of the Bowman's capsules and mesen glial cells they have lots of actin which are proteins they have lots of actin which are important for contraction and so it helps alter blood flow and blood pressure now remember how I mentioned that the ascending the thick ascending loop of Henle are important because they contain cells which are important in maintaining ion ion gradient or substances well these cells are very close by to the bow the head of the Bowman's capsule itself here in blue these cells are known as macula densa cells and there are like chemo receptors which monitor sodium and chloride content going into the distal convoluted tubules so there's too much or too little um it will alter the absorption reabsorption secretion of these ions it might all sound very confusing now but I hope later on it will shed this video will shed some light into this confusion so this section here the Bowman's capsule in the glomerulus is known as a renal corpuscle they make up the renal corpuscle and then in the outside essentially we have the juxtaglomerular complex which comprises of the granular cells and missing guy'll cells and the macula densa cells now another important thing to know is that nephrons kidneys itself have a very very rich blood supply in order to perform all its tasks such as regulating volume blood pressure ions osmolarity and pH just to name some but as a kid we'll still be monitoring and regulating pH osmolarity and blood pressure the end product of the kidneys itself the nephrons will be urine waste so now let's look at the kidney physiology and how urine is produced and how it monitors everything at the same time so here we have a nephron from the Bowman's capsule to the end and here of the blood vessel coming in the afferent arteriole coming into the Bowman's capsule and the efferent arterial leaving out now let's look at the three major renal processes the first of the three major arena processes is globulin filtration where substances from the glomerulus gets filtered into the nephron no cells were big proteins really enter however everything usually gets dumped from the glomerulus into the nephron following filtration we have tubular reabsorption where substances that were previously filtered get reabsorbed back into the blood the body selectively moves substances from the filtrate from the nephron back into the blood and nearly everything is reabsorbed back into the blood the glucose amino acids and the water that were just filtered so only small amount of substances is actually left in the nephron itself following reabsorption we have number three tube tubular secretion and this is when the body again selectively ads or ads moves substances from the blood into the nephron into the filtrate so the opposite of reabsorption it actually the body just dumped substances from the blood into the nephron which it doesn't need and so whatever is left in the nephron from the filtration reabsorption and secretion we have what we can call the fourth process which is excretion which is the urine leaving out so let's look at this in a better diagram let's look at the urine production here we have the depiction of one nephron from the head from the Bowman's capsule to the end and here we have the blood supply coming in we have the afferent arteriole which then enters the Bowman's capsule which makes up the glomerulus the glomerulus then leaves above capsule as efferent arteriole and this is our blood supply so the three major arena processes we have one the glomerular filtration filtration basically filtration of substances from the glomerulus into the nephron into the tube you – tubular reabsorption reabsorption is the reabsorption of the filtrate from the children back into the blood what the body needs and then we have three tubular secretion secretion where the body secretes substances from the blood back into the nephron back into the trivial to be excreted for as urine so what amount of substances is actually excreted out of the body to find this let's find out the amount of solute excreted the amount of substances excreted to calculate this first of all we just have to find out the amount filtered the amount actually filtered – the amount reabsorbed by the body and then we have to add the amount secreted by the body and this will give us the amount of solid excreted solute in pee I hope you learned something from this video in the next videos to come we look at the three major arena processes beginning with blood marrow filtration and then reabsorption and then secretion I'll also provide links on this video on one of the functions of kidneys which is regulating fluid volume and blood pressure pressure by providing a link on the ring renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system thank you

47 thoughts on “Nephrology – Kidney Physiology Overview

  1. I go to college as a formality and come home, educate myself through your videos. I owe you so much. You are literally a life saver. Thank you

  2. Thank you so much 😊
    (Btw renin is an enzyme)
    Anyway u helped me a lot
    I don't need to study this again!

  3. You either read first your notes then watch this or vice versa !, repetition and visualing your readings? ! Tadaaa ! More will retain in your brain… He is excellent in teaching, love your videos

  4. Most of your videos are really great! I do not want to complain but I think it's generally difficult to see what you're writing sometimes

  5. Thank you for these videos. I appreciate the care you have put into these information-packed presentations. The fast pace is helpful too.

  6. In case you guys were wondering, I researched a bit and understood:

    Juxtaglomerula apparatus= juxtaglomerular complex

    1) Extraglomerular mesangial cells = Lacis cells (called like this because of the interlacing processes separated by a BM) = Polkissen cells (called like this because of the polar cushion like structure (in German kissen= pillow)); and these are themselves continuous with the intraglomerular mesangial cells = inner mesangial cells = glomerular mesangial cells

    2) Juxtaglomerular granular cells = juxtaglomerular cells = Goormaghtigh cells (named afer Norbert Goormaghtigh)

    3) And I guess the macula densa is considered sometimes to be part of the LoH instead of the distal conv. tubule because some see the thick ascending limb as part of the LoH.

    Dividing up the glomerulus into smaller parts isn't as simple as it seems in the first place, there's a lot of controv. around this topic and also stuff like old terminology vs. new (however not fully accepted) terminology…

    Hope it helps!

  7. To all of you saying "Renin isn't a hormone", please check William's Textbook of Endocrinology, 13th Edition, table 15-23. You're welcome.

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  9. The afferent arteriole is larger than the efferent arteriole, you drew it wrong kind of threw me off for a second lol

  10. It was soo clear..I understood everything..Ma sha Allah!
    Can you PPLLEEASSEE explain reabsorption and transport in nephrons

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