Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants | Biology
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Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants | Biology


We already learned that there are two modes of reproduction. Asexual mode and modes of reproduction. Asexual mode and sexual mode of reproduction. In asexual sexual mode of reproduction. In asexual mode of reproduction only one mode of reproduction only one individual is involved in the reproduction. individual is involved in the reproduction. While in sexual mode of reproduction both the While in sexual mode of reproduction both the sexes that is males and females are sexes that is males and females are involved in the reproduction. So, in this involved in the reproduction. So in this lesson will mainly focus on sexual mode lesson will mainly focus on sexual mode of reproduction. By now we know that of reproduction. By now we know that reproduction causes variation. These reproduction causes variation. These variations are due to the errors in the variations are due to the errors in the DNA copying mechanism. Because of these DNA copying mechanism. Because of these variations, the progenies produce a variations, the progenies produce a slightly different from their parents. slightly different from their parents. But the process of producing variations But the process of producing variations is very slow. So, to speed up this process is very slow. So to speed up this process and alternative can be, that individuals and alternative can be, that individuals should combine and produce a progeny. Thus should combine and produce a progeny. Thus more variations will be formed in the more variations will be formed in the progeny and moreover these will be progeny and moreover these will be noble variations. And we know, that when noble variations. And we know, that when two individuals are involved in two individuals are involved in reproduction. This type of the reproduction reproduction. This type of the reproduction is known as sexual reproduction. But is known as sexual reproduction. But there’s a problem in this kind of there’s a problem in this kind of reproduction. As two individuals combine reproduction. As two individuals combine and form one individual. So in the and form one individual. So in the individual formed there will be two copies individual formed there will be two copies of the DNA or two sets of chromosomes of the DNA or two sets of chromosomes present. That will be the double of the present. That will be the double of the chromosomes which is present in the chromosomes which is present in the parental types. Hence to solve this parental types. Hence to solve this problem in multi cellular organisms there problem in multicellular organisms there are specialized types of cells. These cells are specialized types of cells. These cells have half the number of chromosomes or have half the number of chromosomes or half the number of DNA and these cells half the number of DNA and these cells are known as germ cells. So, the male germ are known as germ cells. So the male germ cells are known as sperms and female germ cells are known as sperms and female germ cells are known as ovum. When these germ cells are known as ovum. When these germ cells from two individuals combine cells from two individuals combine during sexual reproduction it results in during sexual reproduction it results in the formation of a progeny with the the formation of a progeny with the exact number of chromosomes as the exact number of chromosomes as the parents. parents. Hence, sexual reproduction is important Hence, sexual reproduction is important to speed up the process of variations to speed up the process of variations and to have more chances of survival. and to have more chances of survival. Now let’s start with sexual reproduction Now let’s start with sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Flowers are the in flowering plants. Flowers are the reproductive organs in plants reproductive organs in plants let’s have a look on the part of the let’s have a look on the part of the flat it has four parts separate letters flat it has four parts separate letters stamens and carpals stamens and carpals stamens and carpals stamens and carpals are the reproductive parts of the plant are the reproductive parts of the plant stamens are the male reproductive parts stamens are the male reproductive parts while couples are the female while couples are the female reproductive parts they contain Jones’s reproductive parts they contain Jones’s on the basis of the presence of on the basis of the presence of reproductive parts in the flaws flowers reproductive parts in the flaws flowers can be divided into two types uni sexual can be divided into two types unisexual class and bisexual plus unisexual flaws class and bisexual plus unisexual flaws have either determine all couple in them have either determine all couple in them for example but by our watermelon etc for example but by our watermelon etc why bisexual class have both stamens and why bisexual class have both stamens and carpels in them for example discuss carpets in them for example discuss mustard etc now let’s study different mustard etc now let’s study different parts of the flower one-by-one first parts of the flower one-by-one first separate these are green in color and separate these are green in color and these are useful protection of flaws these are useful protection of flaws inside the butt, second betters these are inside the but second betters these are attractive colors these are used to attractive colors these are used to attract insects for pollination next attract insects for pollination next stamens, these are the male reproductive stemmons these are the male reproductive part of the plants they consist of part of the plants they consist of filament and entered the lemon is a filament and entered the lemon is a slender like structure with supports slender like structure with supports enter anchor is present on the filament enter anchor is present on the filament and it contains Poland greens Poland a and it contains Poland greens Poland a yellow in color and these ball and gray yellow in color and these ball and gray and for me to meet next carpal it is a and for me to meet next carpal it is a female the productive part of the plant female the productive part of the plant it consists of overly style and stigma it consists of overly style and stigma only always the swollen bottom most part only always the swollen bottom most part of the carpal it consists of views and of the carpal it consists of views and each of you will consist of an egg which each of you will consist of an egg which is known as female gamete next style is known as female gamete next style style is elongated middle part in the style is elongated middle part in the carpal it is used to connect overly with carpal it is used to connect overly with that stigma and next stigma stigma is that stigma and next stigma stigma is the uppermost sticky part of the carpal the uppermost sticky part of the carpal it is used to take pollen grains on it it is used to take pollen grains on it during pollination now for fertilization during pollination now for fertilization male gamete from Poland should feels male gamete from Poland should feels with female gamete in the ovule and for with female gamete in the ovule and for this poland from Stefan should be this poland from Stefan should be transferred to stigma this transfer of transferred to stigma this transfer of poland from Stefan to stigma of the poland from Stefan to stigma of the carpal is known as pollination. carpal is known as pollination Pollination is of two types pollination is of two types self-pollination and cross-pollination self-pollination and cross-pollination then Pollen our transport from stamen then Poland our transport from stammen to stigma of the same flower it is known to stigma of the same flat it is known as self-pollination vile when Poland are as self-pollination vile when Poland are transferred from stamen of one flower transferred from stemming of one flower to the stigma another flower it is known to the stigma another flat it is known as class pollination for such type of as class pollination for such type of pollination pollen are transferred to pollination poulin are transferred to the other flaws but the help of many the other flaws but the help of many agents like wind, water, animals etc. So, agents like wind water animals etc so now we know that for fertilization now we know that for fertilization male gamete from Pollen should meet the million meat from Poland should meet the female gamete in the ovule and for that female gamete in the ovule and for that Pollen tube carrying the male germ cell or Poland to getting the mill John cell or male gamete millimeters emerges out of the pollen and travels emerges out of the poland and travels down throughout the style and reaches down throughout the style and reaches the ovule. in ovule there are 7 cells the of you interview there are 7 says three at each corners and one in the three at each corners and one in the center, this Center cell is formed by the center this Center cell is formed by the fusion of 2 cells. fusion of deuces Now, one among these three cells in the now one among these three cells in the corner is XL corner is exhale so the male gamete or the male germ so the meal to meet or the main jaan cell which comes with the Pollen tube cell which comes with the Poland tube fuses with this XL which is the female fuses with this XL which is the female gamete.As a result of this getting it as a result of this fertilization zygote is formed inside fertilization zygote is formed inside the Ovule repeated divisions in the the Oval repeated divisions in the zygote form embryo and this embryo is zygote form embryo and this embryo is the future seat it then develops a tough the future seat it then develops a tough coat around it which is known as seed called around it which is known as seed coat this seed then germinate and forms coat this seed then germinate and forms the ceiling which eventually forms a the ceiling which eventually forms a mature plant the process by which a mature plant the process by which a plant grows from a seat and forms a plant grows from a seat and forms a seedling is known as seed germination. seedling is known as seed germination Seedling consists of two parts radical seedling consists of two parts radical and blue moon radical is the first part and blue moon radical is the first part of the seedling that comes out in of the seedling that comes out in germination it is a future root of the germination it is a future root of the plant plumule is the future shoot plant whelpley moon is the future shoot of the plant it bears leaves the first of the plant it bears leaves the first and embryonic leaves are called Cotyledons and Brianna Cleaves are called got evidence which are used for the storage evidence which are used for the storage of food of food let’s have a quick glance at the lesson let’s have a quick glance at the lesson we have studied that flowers are the we have studied that flies are the productive part of the plants. This class productive part of the plants this class consists of four parts sepal, petals consists of four parts separate better stamens and carpels out of these stems stamens and carpus out of these stems and carpets are the reproductive parts and carpets are the reproductive parts of the plants. Flowers having either of the plants flowers having either stamen or carpels are called stamen our God balls are called unisexual flowers while flowers unisexual laws while plus having both stamen and carpel are called going both women and carpal are called bisexual flowers then we studied in brief bisexual plus then we studied in brief about both stamen and carpels stamens about both demons and couples stamens are the male reproductive part of the are the main reproductive part of the flower while carpels are the female flower while carpets are the female reproductive parts of the flower. reproductive parts of the flower Next, we started about pollination which next we started about pollination which is the transfer of pollen from stamens is the transfer of poland from stemmons to carpels last we saw fertilization to carpals last we saw fertilization which is the process of fusion of male which is the process of fusion of male and female gametes and as a result of and female gametes and as a result of fertilization zygote is formed which fertilization zygote is formed which forms embryo this embryo is the future forms em blue this M blue is the future seed and when the seed germinate it seat and when the seed germinate it gives rise to new plant. gives rise to new plant

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