When two or more species live closely together
they establish a relationship called symbiosis. In our life, we have many interactions with
the people around us. You really wish to kill some people, while
you are unaffected by some. There are some with whom you compete, whereas some whom you
love. Similarly, when two different species come
in contact, there are many possible types of interactions that can occur.
Mutualism is the type of symbiotic relationship wherein both species benefit from each other.
Just like you and your friend helping each other for an exam, except the fact that you
belong to the same species. A good example of mutualism is that of ants
and aphids who support each other. Ants can transport aphids to new plants to eat, bring
them inside the anthill when it is too cold, and protect them from predators like ladybugs.
Ants do this because aphid poop is basically a sugar paste called “honeydew”. Ants take
care of the aphids because they can then eat the aphids’ waste.
Commensalism is the type of symbiotic relationship where one species benefits, whereas the other
species remain unaffected. If your friend will peep into your answers,
it won’t affect your performance in the exam, but it will definitely benefit your
friend. A good example of commensalism would be the
shark and remora fish. When the shark feeds on small fishes it might leave leftovers,
which is consumed by remora fish The shark is unaffected by this, however,
the remora fish is benefitted Competition is a relationship between organisms
that has a negative effect on both animals! This can happen when two animals are competing
for food, land or a mate. It’s just like you writing your exam seriously
to score more than your competitor in the class. Sometimes they may win, and sometimes
you may win. So none of you is reaping full benefits from this relationship Parasitism is the type of symbiotic relationship,
wherein one species is benefitted, whereas the other one is harmed.
It’s like a classmate exchanging answer sheets without your knowledge during an exam.
Thus, they will benefit from the scores, whereas you will be harmed.
A good example will be of the dog and ticks. In biological systems, mainly parasites live
on or inside the host’s body, and rely on the host for food and energy requirements,
thus exhausting the host’s resources. The bacteria and viruses that attack us and make
us sick, are the parasite who are benefiting at the cost of our health. So we are at a
loss Parasitism is different from predation because
parasites do not kill their host. Predation is a relationship between predator
and prey. The predator survives by killing and eating the prey.
Luckily, predation is not observed in a normal school scenario.
Examples of predation could be anything where a higher tropic level animal hunts down a
herbivore or lower trophic level animal for its meat.