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*Dr. Big Boy walks in with usual drink* Welp, it’s good to see we have a full class today *Disrespectful* Well I was gonna teach yall about dopamine today But since not a lot of yall showed up, why don’t I just show you with my time machine? LETS GO! dopamine is a chemical made by a body
and is used as a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays a role in
how we feel and perceive pleasure dopamine is received by a nervous system
at sites called drd4 receptors there are three types of drd4 genes the gene that
encodes for the dopamine receptors these three include the 2R, 4R, and 7R
alleles with the 4R allele being the most common studies have shown that the
7R allele is associated with high levels of activity and ADHD. In David
Epstein’s book the sports gene he proposes that those with the 7R allele
of the drd4 gene are more commonly found in groups of nomadic people compared to
settled populations in a 2008 study two groups
of Kenyan tribesmen were genetically tested for identifying which dopamine
receptor they possessed one group being migratory and the other settled the
studies showed that a drd4 7R allele was the was only amongst the nomadic
people furthermore those with the 7R allele were less malnourished due to a more
active lifestyle imposed by the 7R allele. Alright, this is my time machine *warping back in time* Alright, so now that we’re back in time, we’re gonna be looking for two groups of people nomadic and settled and we’re gonna get blood samples for each of them Alright. Lets go. okay so nomads have been shown to kind
of like show up around this area so we’re just gonna kind of search around and look for one OH! That’s one right over there. All right Ali get down get down all right he’s coming right around the
corner you see him? alright get him, get him, get him! alright, you got the blood sample? yeah. alright let’s keep moving Alright Ali, I think we found ourselves a little
settled guy over here you see him over there? all right let’s go get him alright let’s get out of here alright, lets head back to the future. Ok, so just like our test said then the migratory population tested positive for the 7 repeat allele that codes for ADHD. Exactly yeah, so it’s believed that if you have ADHD you’re more closely related to these nomadic people than you are the settlers so…cool! yep dopamine and dopamine receptors play an
important role in attention and are therefore a focal point for studying
attention disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD
substance dependencies and impulsive behaviors the human dopamine receptor
gene drd4 is located at the end of chromosome 11 and compared to most of
our genes it exhibits unusual amount of variation more specifically it contains
a 48 base pair variable number tandem repeat in the third exon that is
repeated between 2 and 11 times the most common variations being 2, 4, and 7
repeats the 7 repeat allele has been reported to code for a receptor with
lower affinity for dopamine and could be responsible for ADHD dependencies,
alcoholism, and impulsive behavior in a recent study 133 children ages 6 to 13
were tested for the 7 repeat allele these children were then given tests
known to be associated with attention, impulsive control, and response
inhibition It’s found that the children who had the
seven repeat allele had significantly more incorrect responses and a shorter
mean reaction time than the children that did not have the allele but having
ADHD isn’t such a bad thing after all according to the children and adults
with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders or CHADD, ADHD may be more
common in elite athletes than the general population in fact common
symptoms of ADHD may even enhance athletic performance according to CHADD
many children with ADHD were reported to hyper focus on their own enjoyable
activities without being distracted by external responsibilities Michael Phelps
perhaps one of the most well known Olympic swimmers was diagnosed with ADHD
as a child and has never included medication as a part of his treatment
for the disorder after being involved in swimming
he found the lifestyle that helped him cope with his symptoms Uhhh I’m an Olympic champion and I have ADHD growing up I was somebody who was always
constantly bouncing off the wall I could never sit still if I could go back in
time and tell my younger self something I would tell him to to believe what’s in
his heart and never ever give up let’s start by breaking it down and talk about
how ADHD exhibits itself well all of ADDHD that we always hear about is from
the observational standpoint because there is no testing other than
observational that says that this person is actually gifted with that thing we
call ADDHD which gives him the ability to hyper focus or multitask when they’re
really into what they’re doing like Michael is when he was swimming he could
hyper focus into it he could go into what we used to call the zone and then he
would perform and that extra energy that extra ability to focus all the gifts
that come with a ADDHD kicked in and made him make history. As a result of
having the seven repeat allele Phelps may have experienced trouble in the
classroom but ADHD did not put him at a disadvantage in the pool he was able to
focus his energy into a lifestyle that suited his genetic predisposition this
foundation could even be the main contributor to many of his athletic

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